Vitamin B9 – Folate

Proprietary Source

Mymmunity formulates using a methylated form of folic acid called Quatrefolic® which is derived from the inability of a part of world population to assimilate and metabolize folic acid from food or supplements.

Chemical Name


Immune support

T cells are the part of the immune system that provides short-term defense against pathogens. Folate deficiency can led to decreased production of T-cells and increasing folate levels can increase T-cell levels to normal. Other studies have shown that deficiencies in folate also lead to decreased responses of T-cells and antibodies to certain pathogens. This ultimately leads to decreased resistance to infections.

Other uses

Serious kidney disease (end-stage renal disease or ESRD). About 85% of people with serious kidney disease have high levels of homocysteine. High levels of homocysteine have been linked to heart disease and stroke. Taking folic acid lowers homocysteine levels in people with serious kidney disease. However, folic acid supplementation does not appear to reduce the risk of heart disease-related events.
High amounts of homocysteine in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia). High levels of homocysteine have been linked to heart disease and stroke. Taking folic acid lowers homocysteine levels by 20% to 30% in people with normal to slightly elevated homocysteine levels. It is recommended that people with homocysteine levels greater than 11 micromoles/L supplement with folic acid and vitamin B12.
Toxicity caused by the drug methotrexate. Taking folic acid seems to reduce nausea and vomiting, which are possible side effects of methotrexate treatment.
Birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects). Folic acid during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube birth defects. It is recommended that pregnant women get 600-800 mcg of folic acid per day from their diet or supplements starting 1 month before pregnancy and during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a history of neural tube birth defects are advised to get 4000 mcg of folic acid per day.
An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Research shows that taking folic acid with other vitamins including vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 reduces the risk of developing age-related vision loss.
Decline in memory and thinking skills in older people that is more than what is normal for their age. Research shows that taking folic acid with or without other B vitamins may improve memory and thinking skills in older people with larger than normal declines in these skills. Folic acid seems to work best in people who have low levels of folate or high levels of homocysteine in the blood.
Depression. Limited research shows that taking folic acid along with antidepressants seems to improve symptoms in people with depression.
High blood pressure. Research shows that taking folic acid daily for at least 6 weeks reduces blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. But Taking folic acid with blood pressure medication does not seem to lower blood pressure more than taking only blood pressure medicine
Gum enlargement caused by the drug phenytoin. Applying folic acid to the gums seems to prevent gum problems caused by phenytoin. However, taking folic acid by mouth does not seem to improve symptoms of this condition.
Gum disease in women who are pregnant. Applying folic acid to the gums seems to improve gum disease during pregnancy.
Stroke. Taking folic acid can reduce the risk of stroke by 10% to 25% in people who live in countries that don't fortify grain products with folic acid. But folic acid doesn't seem to prevent strokes in most people who live in countries that do fortify grain products with folic acid.
A skin disorder that causes white patches to develop on the skin (vitiligo). Taking folic acid by mouth seems to improve symptoms of vitiligo.

How it works

Folate is needed for the proper development of the human body. It is involved in producing the genetic material called DNA and in numerous other bodily functions.


When taken by mouth: Folic acid is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth. Most adults do not experience any side effects when used in doses less than 1 mg daily.

Folic acid is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large doses, long-term. Although doses up to 5 mg daily have been safely used in some research, doses of folic acid greater than 1 mg daily might cause abdominal cramps, diarrhea, rash, sleep disorders, irritability, confusion, nausea, stomach upset, behavior changes, skin reactions, seizures, gas, excitability, and other side effects.

There is also some concern that taking too much folic acid for a long period of time might cause serious side effects. Some research suggests that taking folic acid in doses of 800 mcg to 1.2 mg daily might increase the risk of heart attack in people who have heart problems. Other research suggests that taking these high doses might also increase the risk of cancer such as lung or prostate cancer.

When given as a shot: Folic acid is LIKELY SAFE for most people when injected into the body. Most adults do not experience any side effects when used in doses less than 1 mg daily.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Folic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately during pregnancy and breast-feeing. Taking 300-400 mcg of folic acid daily is commonly used during pregnancy to prevent birth defects.

Procedures to widen narrowed arteries (angioplasty): Using folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intravenously (by IV) or by mouth might worsen narrowed arteries. Folic acid should not be used by people recovering from this procedure.

Cancer: Early research suggests that taking 800 mcg to 1 mg of folic acid daily might increase the risk of cancer. Until more is known, people with a history of cancer should avoid high doses of folic acid.

Heart disease: Early research suggests that taking folic acid plus vitamin B6 might increase the risk for heart attack in people with a history of heart disease.

Malaria: Early research suggests that taking folic acid plus iron might increase the risk of death or need for treatment in hospital in areas of the world where malaria is common.

Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency: Taking folic acid might mask anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency and delay appropriate treatment.

Seizure disorder: Taking folic acid supplements might make seizures worse in people with seizure disorders, particularly in high doses.

Interactions with medications


Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

There is some concern that taking large amounts of folic acid with 5-fluorouracil might increase some side effects of 5-fluorouracil, especially stomach problems. Talk with your healthcare provider before taking folic acid.

Capecitabine (Xeloda)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

There is some concern that taking large amounts of folic acid might increase the side effects of capecitabine, especially stomach problems like diarrhea and vomiting. Talk with your healthcare provider before taking folic acid.

Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) is used for seizures. The body breaks down fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) to get rid of it. Folic acid can increase how quickly the body breaks down fosphenytoin (Cerebyx). Taking folic acid along with fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) might decrease the effectiveness of fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) for preventing seizures.

Methotrexate (Trexall, others)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Methotrexate (Trexall, others) works by decreasing the effects of folic acid in the body's cells. Taking folic acid pills along with methotrexate might decrease the effectiveness of methotrexate.

Phenobarbital (Luminal)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Phenobarbital (Luminal) is used for seizures. Taking folic acid can decrease how well phenobarbital (Luminal) works for preventing seizures.

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

The body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin) to get rid of it. Folic acid might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin). Taking folic acid and taking phenytoin (Dilantin) might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) and increase the possibility of seizures.

Primidone (Mysoline)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Primidone (Mysoline) is used for seizures. Folic acid might cause seizures in some people. Taking folic acid along with primidone (Mysoline) might decrease how well primidone works for preventing seizures.

Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of pyrimethamine (Daraprim) for treating parasite infections.

Interactions with Herbs, Supplements, and Foods

Green tea

There is some concern that green tea might keep folic acid from working the way it should in the body. This might lead to a condition that is similar to folic acid deficiency.


Taking folic acid with food reduces its absorption slightly, but probably not enough to be important.

Zinc-containing foods

Researchers don't agree on whether or not folic acid interferes with zinc absorption. But for people who get enough zinc in their diet, the effect of folic acid probably isn't important.


McEvoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.

Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4.

PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15(12);151206.

Carlsen SM, Folling I, Grill V, et al. Metformin increases total homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1997;57:521-7.

O'Keefe SJ, Ogden J, Dicker J. Enteral and parenteral branched chain amino acid-supplemented nutritional support in patients with encephalopathy due to alcoholic liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987;11:447-53.

Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI, et al. Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocysteinemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:2002-6.

Hardman JG, Limbird LL, Molinoff PB, eds. Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Jones BD, Runikis AM. Interaction of ginseng with phenelzine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987;7:201-2.

Shiroky JB, Neville C, Esdaile JM, et al. Low-dose methotrexate with leucovorin (folinic acid) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:795-803.

Duhra P. Treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with methotrexate therapy for psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:466-9.

Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prev Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:101-7.

Levine RJ, Hauth JC, Curet LB, et al. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 1997;337:69-76.

Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V, Dhole S. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 1996;22:425-30.

D'Almeida A, Carter JP, Anatol A, Prost C. Effects of a combination of evening primrose oil (gamma linolenic acid) and fish oil (eicosapentaenoic + docahexaenoic acid) versus magnesium, and versus placebo in preventing pre-eclampsia. Women Health 1992;19:117-31.

Bostom AG, Gohh RY, Beaulieu AJ, et al. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:1089-92.

Morrow LE, Grimsley EW. Long-term diuretic therapy in hypertensive patients: effects on serum homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and red blood cell folate concentrations. South Med J 1999;92:866-70.

Christensen B, Landaas S, Stensvold I, et al. Whole blood folate, homocysteine in serum, and risk of first acute myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 1999;147:317-26.

Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism, dietary interactions, and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1997;57:1098-102.

Lashner BA, Provencher KS, Seidner DL, et al. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk for cancer or dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1997;112:29-32.

La Vecchia C, Braga C, Negri E et al. Intake of selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 1997;73:525-30.

Tseng M, Murray SC, Kupper LL, Sandler RS. Micronutrients and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:1005-14.

Baron JA, Sandler RS, Haile RW, et al. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of colorectal adenomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:57-62.

Slattery ML, Schaffer D, Edwards SL, et al. Are dietary factors involved in DNA methylation associated with colon cancer? Nutr Cancer 1997;28:52-62.

Freudenheim JL, Graham S, Marshall JR, et al. Folate intake and carcinogenesis of the colon and rectum. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:368-74.

Brouwer IA, van Dusseldorp M, Thomas CM, et al. Low-dose folic acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:99-104.

Landgren F, Israelsson B, Lindgren A, et al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Intern Med 1995;237:381-8.

Woodside JV, Yarnell JW, McMaster D, et al. Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:858-66.

Brattstrom LE, Israelsson B, Jeppsson JO, et al. Folic acid-an innocuous means to reduce plasma homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1988;48:215-21.

Brown RS, Di Stanislao PT, Beaver WT, et al. The administration of folic acid to institutionalized epileptic adults with phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;70:565-8.

Drew HJ, Vogel RI, Molofsky W, et al. Effect of folate on phenytoin hyperplasia. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:350-6.

Pack AR, Thomson ME. Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 1980;7:402-14.

Juhlin L, Olsson MJ. Improvement of vitiligo after oral treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid and the importance of sun exposure. Acta Derm Venereol 1997;77:460-2.

Montes LF, Diaz ML, Lajous J, et al. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo: a nutritional approach. Cutis 1992;50:39-42.

Strom CM, Brusca RM, Pizzi WJ. Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of folinic acid Leucovorin for the treatment of fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1992;44:676-82.

Fisch GS, Cohen IL, Gross AC, et al. Folic acid treatment of fragile X males: a further study. Am J Med Genet 1988;30:393-9.

Gillberg C, Wahlstrom J, Johansson R, et al. Folic acid as an adjunct in the treatment of children with the autism fragile-X syndrome (AFRAX). Dev Med Child Neurol 1986;28:624-7.

Rosenblatt DS, Duschenes EA, Hellstrom FV, et al. Folic acid blinded trial in identical twins with fragile X syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 1985;37:543-52.

Hagerman RJ, Jackson AW, Levitas A, et al. Oral folic acid versus placebo in the treatment of males with the fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1986;23:241-62.

Brown WT, Cohen IL, Fisch GS, et al. High dose folic acid treatment of fragile (X) males. Am J Med Genet 1986;23:263-71.

Muggia FM, Synold TW, Newman EM, et al. Failure of pretreatment with intravenous folic acid to alter the cumulative hematologic toxicity of lometrexol. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1495-6.

Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Vaughn WH, et al. Supplementation with folic acid during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:833-41.

Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Vaughn WH, et al. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the toxicity of low-dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:9-18.

Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, et al. The efficacy of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing methotrexate gastrointestinal toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis. A metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol 1998;25:36-43.

Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:517-24.

Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1145-9.

Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Kastrup EK. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 1998 ed. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.

Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:517-27.

Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 1998;279:359-64.

Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Porkkala-Sarataho E, et al. Low serum folate concentrations are associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:424-8.

Bostom AG, Shemin D, Bagley P, et al. Controlled comparison of L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate versus folic acid for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients. Circulation 2000;101:2829-32.

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety, and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements. Letter regarding dietary supplement health claim for folic acid with respect to neural tube defects. 2000. Available at: QualifiedHealthClaims/ucm073058.htm.

Coppen A, Bailey J. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Dis 2000;60:121-31.

Vermeulen EG, Stehouwer CD, Twisk JW, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:517-22.

Bostom AG, Garber C. Endpoints for homocysteine-lowering trials. Lancet 2000;355:511-2.

Roncucci L, Di Donato P, Carati L, et al. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose for the prevention of the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Univ of Modena and the Health Care Dist 16. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:227-34.

McKeown-Eyssen G, Holloway C, Jazmaji V, et al. A randomized trial of vitamins C and E in the prevention of recurrence of colorectal polyps. Cancer Res 1988;48:4701-5.

Garabedian-Ruffalo SM, Ruffalo RL. Drug and nutrient interactions. Am Fam Physician 1986;33:165-74.

Kishi T, Fujita N, Eguchi T, et al. Mechanism for reduction of serum folate by antiepileptic drugs during prolonged therapy. J Neurol Sci 1997;145:109-12.

Froscher W, Maier V, Laage M, et al. Folate deficiency, anticonvulsant drugs, and psychiatric morbidity. Clin Neuropharmacol 1995;18:165-82.

Hendel J, Dam M, Gram L, et al. The effects of carbamazepine and valproate on folate metabolism in man. Acta Neurol Scan 1984;69:226-31.

Traccis S, Monaco F, Sechi GP, et al. Long-term therapy with carbamazepine: Effects on nerve conduction velocity. Eur Neurol 1983;22:410-6.

Gorbach SL. Bengt E. Gustafsson memorial lecture. Function of the normal human microflora. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1986;49:17-30.

Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5.

West RJ, Lloyd JK. The effect of cholestyramine on intestinal absorption. Gut 1975;16:93-8.

Matsui MS, Rozovski SJ. Drug-nutrient interaction. Clin Ther 1982;4:423-40.

Tonstad S, Silverstein M, Aksnes L, Ose L. Low dose colestipol in adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arch Dis Child 1996;74:157-60.

Kahn SB, Fein SA, Brodsky I. Effects of trimethoprim on folate metabolism in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1968;9:550-60.

Lewis DP, Van Dyke DC, Willhite LA, et al. Phenytoin-folic acid interaction. Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:726-35.

Berg MJ, Stumbo PJ, Chenard CA, et al. Folic acid improves phenytoin pharmacokinetics. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:352-6.

Berg MJ, Fincham RW, Ebert BE, et al. Phenytoin pharmacokinetics: Before and after folic acid administration. Epilepsia 1992;33:712-20.

Shafer RB, Nuttall FQ. Calcium and folic acid absorption in patients taking anticonvulsant drugs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;41:1125-9.

Termanini B, Gibril F, Sutliff VE, et al. Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Am J Med 1998;104:422-30.

Carpentier JL, Bury J, Luyckx A, et al. Vitamin B12 and folic acid serum levels in diabetics under various therapeutic regimens. Diabete Metab 1976;2:187-90.

Leeb BF, Witzmann G, Ogris E, et al. Folic acid and cyanocobalamin levels in serum and erythrocytes during low-dose methotrexate therapy of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1995;13:459-63.

Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Lee JY, Alarcón GS. Folic acid supplementation prevents deficient blood folate levels and hyperhomocysteinemia during longterm, low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovascular disease prevention. J Rheumatol 1998;25:441-6.

Dijkmans BA. Folate supplementation and methotrexate. Br J Rheumatol 1995;34:1172-4.

Prasad AS, Lei KY, Moghissi KS, et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on nutrients. III. Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125:1063-9.

Krogh-Jensen M, Ekelund S, Svendsen L. Folate and homocysteine status and haemolysis in patients treated with sulphasalazine for arthritis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1996;56:421-9.

Logan EC, Williamson LM, Ryrie DR. Sulphasalazine associated pancytopenia may be caused by acute folate deficiency. Gut 1986;27:868-72.

Grieco A, Caputo S, Bertoli A, et al. Megaloblastic anemia due to sulphasalazine responding to drug withdrawal alone. Postgrad Med J 1986;62:307-8.

Taliani U, Camellini A, Bernardi P, et al. A clinical case of severe megaloblastic anemia during treatment with primidone. Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense 1989;60:245-8.

Segal S, Kaminski S. Drug-nutrient interactions. American Druggist 1996 Jul;42-8.

Glaxo-Wellcome, Inc. Daraprim package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC; August 1996.

Lambie DG, Johnson RH. Drugs and folate metabolism. Drugs 1985;30:145-55.

Joosten E, Pelemans W. Megaloblastic anaemia in an elderly patient treated with triamterene. Neth J Med 1991;38:209-11.

Amer College of Rheumatology ad hoc committee on clinical guidelines. Guidelines for monitoring drug therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:723-31.

Longsreth GF, Newcomer AD, Westbrook PR. Para-aminosalicylic acid-induced malabsorption. Am J Dig Dis 1972;17:731-4.

Zimmerman J. Drug interactions in intestinal transport of folic acid and methotrexate. Further evidence for the heterogeneity of folate transport in the human small intestine. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44:1839-42.

Ogunmekan AO, Hwang PA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), as add-on therapy, for epilepsy in children. Epilepsia 1989;30:84-9.

Bottiglieri T, Hyland K, Reynolds EH. The clinical potential of ademetionine (S-adenosylmethionine) in neurological disorders. Drugs 1994;48:137-52.

Werbach MR. Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:93-108.

Jacobson W, Saich T, Borysiewicz, LK, et al. Serum folate and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neurol 1993;43:2645-7.

Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Smith CD, et al. Serum folate and the severity of atrophy of the neocortex in Alzheimer disease: findings from the Nun study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:993-8.

Usui M, Matsuoka H, Miyazaki H, et al. Endothelial dysfunction by acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia: restoration by folic acid. Clin Sci (Colch) 1999;96:235-9.

Nelen WL, Blom HJ, Steegers EA, et al. Homocysteine and folate levels as risk factors for recurrent early pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:519-24.

Ortega RM, Manas LR, Andres P, et al. Functional and psychic deterioration in elderly people may be aggravated by folate deficiency. J Nutr 1996;126:1992-9.

Fava M, Borus JS, Alpert JE, et al. Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine in major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:426-8.

Suitor CW, Bailey LB. Dietary folate equivalents: interpretation and application. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:88-94.

Suitor CW, Bailey LB. Food folate vs synthetic folic acid: a comparison. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:285.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at:

Nardini M, De Stefano R, Iannuccelli M, et al. Treatment of depression with L-5-hydroxytryptophan combined with chlorimipramine, a double-blind study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1983;3:239-50.

Kuroki F, Iida M, Tominaga M, et al. Multiple vitamin status in Crohn's disease. Correlation with disease activity. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1614-8.

Lashner BA. Red blood cell folate is associated with the development of dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1993;119:549-54.

Kauwell GP, Lippert BL, Wilsky CE, et al. Folate status of elderly women following moderate folate depletion responds only to a higher folate intake. J Nutr 2000;130:1584-90.

Riddell LJ, Chisholm A, Williams S, Mann JI. Dietary strategies for lowering homocysteine concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1448-54.

Booth GL, Wang EE. Preventive health care, 2000 update: screening and management of hyperhomocysteinemia for the prevention of coronary artery disease events. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ 2000;163:21-9.

Tremblay R, Bonnardeaux A, Geadah D, et al. Hyperhomocystinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. Kidney Int 2000;58:851-8.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at:

Sandoval M, Charbonnet RM, Okuhama NN, et al. Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 2000;29:71-78.

Manns B, Hyndman E, Burgess E, et al. Oral vitamin B(12) and high-dose folic acid in hemodialysis patients with hyper-homocyst(e)inemia. Kidney Int 2001;59:1103-9.

Kaslow JE, Rucker L, Onishi R. Liver extract-folic acid-cyanocobalamin vs placebo for chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2501-3.

Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, et al. Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet 2000;356:1300-6.

Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, et al. Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:758-65.

Grace E, Emans SJ, Drum DE. Hematologic abnormalities in adolescents who take oral contraceptive pills. J Pediatrics 1982;101:771-4.

Green TJ, Houghton LA, Donovan U, et al. Oral contraceptives did not affect biochemical folate indexes and homocysteine concentrations in adolescent females. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:49-55.

Beaulieu AJ, Gohh RY, Han H, et al. Enhanced reduction of fasting total homocysteine levels with supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in renal transplant recipients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2918-21.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary stenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600.

Russell RM, Golner BB, Krasinski SD, et al. Effect of antacid and H2 receptor antagonists on the intestinal absorption of folic acid. J Lab Clin Med 1988;112:458-63.

Olsen SF, Sorensen JD, Secher NJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet 1992;339:1003-7.

Antony AC. Megaloblastic Anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz Jr EJ, Shattil SJ, et al. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone 2000: 451-79.

Sunder-Plassmann G, Fodinger M, Buchmayer H, et al. Effect of high dose folic acid therapy on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: results of the Vienna multicenter study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:1106-16..

Checkoway H, Powers K, Smith-Weller T, et al. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:732-8..

Gregory JF. Case study: folate bioavailability. J Nutr 2001;131:1376S-1382S..

Fohr IP, Prinz-Langenohl R, Bronstrup A, et al. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype determines the plasma homocysteine-lowering effect of supplementation with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or folic acid in healthy young women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:275-82..

Rasmussen LB, Ovesen L, Bulow I, et al. Folate intake, lifestyle factors, and homocysteine concentrations in younger and older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1156-63..

Murua AL, Quintana I, Janson J, et al. Plasmatic homocysteine response to vitamin supplementation in elderly people. Thromb Res 2000;100:495-500..

de Bree A, Verschuren WM, Blom HJ, Kromhout D. Association between B vitamin intake and plasma homocysteine concentration in the general Dutch population aged 20-65 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1027-33..

McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, et al. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. J Nutr 2000;130:3090-6..

Vos E. Multivitamin supplements are effective and inexpensive agents to lower homocysteine levels. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:774-5.

Wald DS, Bishop L, Wald NJ, et al. Randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and serum homocysteine levels. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:695-700..

Nallamothu BK, Fendrick M, Rubenfire M, et al. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3406-12..

Koebnick C, Heins UA, Hoffman I, et al. Folate status during pregnancy in women is improved by long-term high vegetable intake compared with the average western diet. J Nutr 2001;131:733-9..

Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med 2002;112:556-65..

Loria CM, Ingram DD, Feldman JJ, et al. Serum folate and cardiovascular disease mortality among US men and women. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3258-62..

Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Virtanen J, et al. Low dietary folate intake is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events. Circulation 2001;103:2674-80..

Thambyrajah J, Landray MJ, Jones HJ, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:1858-63..

Woo KS, Chook P, Chan LL, et al. Long-term improvement in homocysteine levels and arterial endothelial function after 1-year folic acid supplementation. Am J Med 2002;112:535-9..

Pullin CH, Ashfield-Watt PA, Burr ML, et al. Optimization of dietary folate or low-dose folic acid supplements lower homocysteine but do not enhance endothelial function in healthy adults, irrespective of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) genotype. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1799-805..

Gori T, Burstein JM, Ahmed S, et al. Folic acid prevents nitroglycerin-induced nitric oxide synthase dysfunction and nitrate tolerance. Circulation 2001:104;1119-23..

Loscalzo J. Folate and nitrate-induced endothelial dysfunction. A simple treatment for a complex pathobiology. Circulation 2001;104:1086-8.

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Dietary intake of folate and risk of stroke in US men and women: NHANES I epidemiolgic follow-up study. Stroke 2002;33:1183-8..

Mayer O, Simon J, Rosolova H, et al. The effects of folate supplementation on some coagulation parameter and oxidative status surrogates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58:1-5..

Stehouwer CD. Clinical relevance of hyperhomocysteinaemia in atherothrombotic disease. Drugs and Aging 2000;16:251-60..

Stulc T, Melenovsky V, Grauova B, et al. Folate supplementation prevents plasma homocysteine increase after fenofibrate therapy. Nutrition 2001;17:721-3..

Thambyrajah J, Landray MJ, McGlynn FJ, et al. Does folic acid decrease plasma homocysteine and improve endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure? Circulation 2000;102:871-5..

van der Dijs FP, Fokkema MR, Dijck-Brouwer DA, et al. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol 2002;69:239-46..

Su LJ, Arab L. Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Ann Epidemiol 2001;11:65-72..

Fuchs CS, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. The influence of folate and multivitamin use on the familial risk of colon cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:227-34..

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pietinen P, Barrett MJ, et al. Dietary and other methyl-group availability factors and pancreatic cancer risk in a cohort of male smokers. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:680-7..

Shrubsole MJ, Jin F, Dai Q, et al. Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res 2001;61:7136-41..

Huang RF, Ho Y, Lin H, et al. Folate deficiency induces a cell cycle-specific apoptosis in HepG2 cells. J Nutr 1999;129:25-31..

Duthie SJ, Whalley LJ, Collins AR, et al. Homocysteine, B vitamin status, and cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:908-13..

Smith AD. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive deficit in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:785-6.

Botez MI, Cadotte M, Beaulieu R, et al. Neurologic disorders responsive to folic acid therapy. Can Med Assoc J 1976;115:217-23..

Botez MI, Peyronnard J, Berube L, Labrecque R. Relapsing neuropathy, cerebral atrophy and folate deficiency. Appl Neurophysiol 1979;42:171-83..

Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, et al. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2002;77:491-8..

Lawrence VA, Loewenstein JE, Eichner ER. Aspirin and folate binding: in vivo and in vitro studies of serum binding and urine excretion of endogenous folate. J Lab Clin Med 1984;103:944-8.

Butterworth CE, Hatch KD, Gore H, Mueller H, Krumdieck CL. Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:73-82.

Halsted CH, Gandhi G, Tamura T. Sulfasalazine inhibits the absorption of folates in ulcerative colitis. New Engl J Med 1981;305:1513-7.

Hiilesmaa VK, Teramo K, Granstrom ML, Bardy AH. Serum folate concentrations during pregnancy in women with epilepsy: relation to antiepileptic drug concentrations, number of seizures, and fetal outcome. Br Med J 1983;287:577-9.

Dansky LV, Rosenblatt DS, Andermann E. Mechanisms of teratogenesis: folic acid and antiepileptic therapy. Neurology 1992;42:32-42.

Lewis DP, Van Dyke DC, Stumbo PJ, Berg MJ. Drug and environmental factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Part I: antiepileptic drugs, contraceptives, smoking, and folate. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:802-17.

Reynolds EH. Neurological aspects of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Clin Haematol 1976;5:661-96.

Reynolds EH. Folate metabolism and anticonvulsant therapy. Proc R Soc Med 1974;67:68.

Reynolds EH, Trimble MR. Adverse neuropsychiatric effects of anticonvulsant drugs. Drugs 1985;29:570-81.

Alter HJ, Zvaifler NJ, Rath CE. Interrelationship of rheumatoid arthritis, folic acid and aspirin. Blood 1971;38:405-16.

Baggott JE, Morgan SL, Ha T, et al. Inhibition of folate-dependent enzymes by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Biochem J 1992;282:197-202.

Frequin ST, Wevers RA, Braam M, et al. Decreased vitamin B12 and folate levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of multiple sclerosis patients after high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. J Neurol 1993;240:305-8.

Klipstein FA, Berlinger FG, Reed LJ. Folate deficiency associated with drug therapy for tuberculosis. Blood 1967;29:697-712.

Russell RM, Krasinski SD, Samloff IM, et al. Folic acid malabsorption in atrophic gastritis: possible compensation by bacterial folate synthesis. Gastroenterology 1986;91:1476-82.

Buysschaert M, Wallemacq PE, Dramais AS, Hermans MP. Hyperhomocysteinemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1816-22.

Aarsand AK, Carlsen SM. Folate administration reduces circulating homocysteine levels in NIDDM patients on long-term metformin treatment. J Int Med 1998;244:169-74.

Berchtold P, Dahlqvist A, Gustafson A, Asp NG. Effects of a biguanide (metformin) on vitamin B12 and folic acid absorption and intestinal enzyme activities. Scand J Gastroenterol 1971;6:751-4.

Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez Almazor M, et al. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000951.

Check WA. Folate for oral contraceptive users may reduce cervical cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:633-4.

Shojania AM. Oral contraceptives: effect on folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Can Med Assoc J 1982;126:244-7.

Barone C, Bartoloni C, Ghirlanda G, Gentiloni N. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency after oral contraceptives. Haematologica 1979;64:190-5.

Mooij PN, Thomas CM, Doesburg WH, Eskes TK. Multivitamin supplementation in oral contraceptive users. Contraception 1991;44:277-88.

Russell RM, Dutta SK, Oaks EV, et al. Impairment of folic acid absorption by oral pancreatic extracts. Dig Dis Sci 1980;25:369-73.

Corcino J, Waxman S, Herbert V. Mechanism of triamterene-induced megaloblastosis. Ann Intern Med 1970;73:419-24.

Prouse PJ, Shawe D, Gumpel JM. Macrocytic anemia in patients treated with sulfasalazine for rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1986;293:1407.

Longstreth GF, Green R. Folate status in patients receiving maintenance doses of sulfasalazine. Arch Int Med 1983;143:902-4.

Drake S, Lampasona V, Nicks HL, Schwarzmann SW. Pentamidine isethionate in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Clin Pharm 1985;4:507-16.

Lashner BA, Heidenreich PA, Su GL, et al. Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1989;97:255-9.

Van Delden C, Hirschel B. Folinic acid supplements to pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine for Toxoplasma encephalitis are associated with better outcome (letter). J Infect Dis 1996;173:1294-5.

Pelliniemi TT, Kasanen A, Sundquist H. Lack of haematological side effects during prophylactic use of trimethoprim over four years. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:436-40.

Kobrinsky NL, Ramsay NKC. Acute megaloblastic anemia induced by high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Int Med 1981;94:780-1.

Naderer O, Nafziger AN, Bertino JS. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:2466-70.

Kinzie BJ, Taylor JW. Trimethoprim and folic acid (letter). Ann Int Med 1984;101:565.

Hollander H. Leukopenia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and folinic acid (letter). Ann Intern Med 1985;102:138.

Stock C. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and folinic acid (letter). Ann Intern Med 1985;102:277.

Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis 1994;170:912-7.

Thompson JB, Hess DR, Poley JR, et al. Intestinal malabsorption induced by paraminosalicylic acid (abstract). Gastroenterology 1970;58:1001.

Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, Sandstead HH. Effect of oral folic acid supplements on zinc, copper, and iron absorption and excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:535-9.

Kakar F, Henderson MM. Potential toxic side effects of folic acid (letter). J Natl Cancer Inst 1985;74:263.

Butterworth CE, Hatch K, Cole P, et al. Zinc concentration in plasma and erythrocytes of subjects receiving folic acid supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:484-6.

Fuller NJ, Bates CJ, Evans PH, Lucas A. High folate intakes related to zinc status in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 1992;151:51-3.

Kauwell GPA, Baily LB, Gregory JF, et al. Zinc status is not adversely affected by folic acid supplementation and zinc intake does not impair folate utilization in human subjects. J Nutr 1995;125:66-72.

Koutts J, Van der Weyden MB, Cooper M. Effect of trimethoprim on folate metabolism in human bone marrow. Aust NZ J Med 1973;3:245-50.

Line DH, Seitanidis B, Morgan JO, Hoffbrand AV. The effects of chemotherapy on iron, folate, and vitamin B12 metabolism in tuberculosis. Q J Med 1971;40:331-40.

Evans DI, Attock B. Folate deficiency in pulmonary tuberculosis: relationship to treatment and to serum vitamin A and beta carotene. Tubercle 1971;52:288-94.

Halsted CH, McIntyre PA. Intestinal malabsorption caused by aminosalicylic acid therapy. Arch Int Med 1972;130;935-9.

Bygbjerg IC, Lund JT, Hording M. Effect of folic and folinic acid on cytopenia occurring during cotrimoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis 1988;20:685-6.

Nunn PP, Allistone JC. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Implication of folinic acid. Chest 1984;86:149-50.

Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ 1998;316:894-8.

Bronstrup A, Hages M, Prinz-Langenohl R, Pietrzik K. Effects of folic acid and combinations of folic acid and vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1104-10.

Ueland PM, Refsum H, Beresford SA, Vollset SE. The controversy over homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:324-32.

Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects. Am J Med 2001;110:536-42.

Bostom AG, Selhub J, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH. Power shortage: clinical trials testing the "homocysteine hypothesis" against a background of folic acid-fortified cereal grain flour. Ann Int Med 2001;135:133-7.

Clarke R, Armitage J. Vitamin supplements and cardiovascular risk: review of the randomized trials of homocysteine-lowering vitamin supplements. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000;26:341-8.

van der Griend R, Biesma DH, Haas FJLM, et al. The effect of different treatment regimens in reducing fasting and postmethionine-load homocysteine concentrations. J Int Med 2000;248:223-9.

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, et al. Relationship between plasma homocysteine and vitamin status in the Framingham study population. Impact of folic acid fortification. Publ Health Rev 2000;28:117-45.

Keebler ME, De Souza C, Fonesca V. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001;3:54-63.

Sunder-Plassmann G, Winkelmayer WC, Fodinger M. Therapeutic potential of total homocysteine-lowering drugs on cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000;9:2637-51.

den Heijer M, Brouwer IA, Bos GMJ, et al. Vitamin supplementation reduces blood homocysteine levels. A controlled trial in patients with venous thrombosis and healthy volunteers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:356-61.

Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Swiss Heart Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:973-9.

Sunder-Plassmann G, Fodinger M, Buchmayer H, et al. Effect of high dose folic acid therapy on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: results of the Vienna Multicenter Study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:1106-16.

Bostom A, Shemin D, Gohh R, et al. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients versus hemodialysis patients. Transplantation 2000;69:2128-31.

Dierkes J, Domrose U, Bosselmann P, et al. Homocysteine lowering effect of different multivitamin preparations in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Renal Nutr 2001;11:67-72.

Bostom AG, Shemin D, Gohh RY, et al. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int 2001;59:s246-s252.

Dierkes J, Domrose U, Ambrosch A, et al. Response of hyperhomocysteinemia to folic acid supplementation in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin Nephrol 1999;51:108-15.

Griffith SM, Fisher J, Clarke S, et al. Do patients with rheumatoid arthritis established on methotrexate and folic acid 5 mg daily need to continue folic acid supplements long term? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:1102-9.

Endresen GK, Husby G. Folate supplementation during methotrexate treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. An update and proposal for guidelines. Scand J Rheumatol 2001;30:129-34.

Schroder H, Clausen N, Ostergard E, Pressler T. Folic acid supplements in vitamin tablets: a determinant of hematological drug tolerance in maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ped Hematol Oncol 1986;3:241-7.

Keating JN, Wada L, Stokstad ELR, King JC. Folic acid: effect on zinc absorption in humans and in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:835-9.

Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Association of the B-vitamins pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6), B12, and folate with lung cancer risk in older men. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:688-94..

Badner NH, Freeman D, Spence JD. Preoperative oral B vitamins prevent nitrous oxide-induced postoperative plasma homocysteine increases. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1507-10..

Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr 2000;3:125-50..

Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, et al. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:630-9..

Eros E, Geher P, Gomor B, Czeizel AE. Epileptogenic activity of folic acid after drug induces SLE (folic acid and epilepsy). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998;80:75-78..

Seal EC, Metz J, Flicker L, Melny J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral vitamin B12 supplementation in older patients with subnormal or borderline serum vitamin B12 concentrations. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:146-51.

van der Griend R, Haas FJ, Biesma DH, et al. Combination of low-dose folic acid and pyridoxine for treatment of hyperhomocysteinaemia in patients with premature arterial disease and their relatives. Atherosclerosis 1999;143:177-83..

Botez MI, Botez T, Ross-Chouinard A, Lalonde R. Thiamine and folate treatment of chronic epileptic patients: a controlled study with the Wechsler IQ scale. Epilepsy Res 1993;16:157-63..

Bottiglieri T, Laundy M, Crellin R, et al. Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:228-32..

Alpert M, Silva RR, Pouget ER. Prediction of treatment response in geriatric depression from baseline folate level: interaction with an SSRI or a tricyclic antidepressant. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;23:309-13..

Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, et al. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:2099-101..

Morris MS, Fava M, Jacques PF, et al. Depression and folate status in the US Population. Psychother Psychosom 2003;72:80-7..

Tolmunen T, Voutilainen S, Hintikka J, et al. Dietary folate and depressive symptoms are associated in middle-aged Finnish men. J Nutr 2003;133:3233-6..

Taylor MJ, Carney S, Geddes J, Goodwin G. Folate for depressive disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003390..

Coppen A, Swade C, Jones SA, et al. Depression and tetrahydrobiopterin: the folate connection. J Affect Disord 1989;16:103-7..

Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Abate G, et al. Oral 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in senile organic mental disorders with depression: results of a double-blind multicenter study. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:63-71..

Godfrey PS, Toone BK, Carney MW, et al. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet 1990;336:392-5..

Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, et al. Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:859-70.

Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, et al. Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. JAMA 2003;290:476-85..

Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, et al. Secondary prevention with folic acid: effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2105-13. .

van Oort FV, Melse-Boonstra A, Brouwer IA, et al. Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1318-23.

Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:565-75..

Hanley DF. The challenge of stroke prevention. JAMA 2004;291:621-2.

Lange H, Suryapranata H, De Luca G, et al. Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2673-81.

Herrmann H. Prevention of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2708-10.

Charles D, Ness AR, Campbell D, et al. Taking folate in pregnancy and risk of maternal breast cancer. Br Med J 2004;329:1375-6.

Oakley GP, Mandel JS. Folic acid fortification remains an urgent health priority. Br Med J 2004;329:1376.

Steinbach G, Lynch PM, Phillips RK, et al. The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. N Eng J Med 2000;342:1946-52.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol 2005;62:641-5.

Corrada M, Kawas C. Reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease with high folate Intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alzheimers Dement 2005;1:11-18.

Bonaa KH, Njolstad I, Ueland PM, et al. NORVIT: Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Enlg J Med 2006;354:1578-88.

Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42.

Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;354:684-96.

McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2764-72.

Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:335-41.

Navarro-Peran E, Cabezas-Herrera J, Garcia-Canovas F, et al. The antifolate activity of tea catechins. Cancer Res 2005;65:2059-64.

Freund-Levi Y, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial. Arch Neurol 2006;63:1402-8.

Barberger-Gateau P, Letenneur L, Deschamps V, et al. Fish, meat, and risk of dementia: cohort study. BMJ 2002;325:932-3.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:940-6.

Durga J, Verhoef P, Anteunis LJC, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on hearing in older adults. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:1-9.

Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, et al. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol 2007;64:86-92.

Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2007;369:208-16.

Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:754-64.

Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, et al. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1586-91.

Lippmann SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39-51.

Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate total cancer in men: the physicians' health study II randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301:52-62.

Figueiredo JC, Grau MV, Haile RW, et al. Folic acid and risk of prostate cancer: Results from a randomized clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:432-5.

Clippe C, Freyer G, Milano G, Trillet-Lenoir V. Lethal toxicity of capecitabine due to abusive folic acid prescription. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2003;15:299-300.

Bedford Laboratories. Leucovorin calcium [package insert]. Bedford, OH. September 2008. Available at:

Ebbing M, Bonaa KH, Nygard O, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA 2009;302:2119-26.

L-methylfolate. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 2010;26(3):260311.

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food on a request from the Commission related to calcium L-methylfolate. EFSA J 2004;135:1-20. Available at: (Accessed 18 March 10).

Willems FF, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Pharmacokinetic study on the utilisation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folic acid in patients with coronary artery disease. Br J Pharmacol 2004;141:825-30.

Galan P, Kesse-Guyot E, Czernichow S, et al; SU.FOL.OM3 Collaborative Group. Effects of B vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases: a randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2010;341:c6273.

Peña-Rosas J. P., Viteri, F. E. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(4):CD004736.

Shah P. S., Ohlsson, A. Effects of prenatal multimicronutrient supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ 2009;180(12):E99-108.

Fall C. H., Fisher D. J., Osmond C., Margetts B. M. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on birth size and length of gestation. Food Nutr Bull 2009;30(4 Suppl):S533-S546.

Ronsmans C., Fisher D. J., Osmond C., Margetts B. M., Fall C. H. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality. Food Nutr Bull 2009;30(4 Suppl):S547-S555.

Moodley J and Norman RJ. Attempts at dietary alteration of prostaglandin pathways in the management of pre-eclampsia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;37(3):145-147.

De-Regil LM, Fernández-Gaxiola AC, Dowswell T, et al. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD007950.

Lin RJ, Krall R, Westerberg BD, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adults. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(3):624-35.

Schernhammer ES, Ogino S, Fuchs CS. Folate and vitamin B6 intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to p53 expression. Gastroenterology. 2008;135(3):770-80.

Roswall N, Olsen A, Christensen J, et al. Micronutrient intake and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a Danish cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34(1):40-6.

Worthington, H. V., Clarkson, J. E., and Eden, O. B. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(4):CD000978.

Bartlett, H. E. and Eperjesi, F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(6):503-523.

Sydow, K., Schwedhelm, E., Arakawa, N., Bode-Boger, S. M., Tsikas, D., Hornig, B., Frolich, J. C., and Boger, R. H. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc.Res 2003;57(1):244-252.

No author. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 7-6-2002;360(9326):23-33.

Zhu, S., Mason, J., Shi, Y., Hu, Y., Li, R., Wahg, M., Zhou, Y., Jin, G., Xie, Y., Wu, G., Xia, D., Qian, Z., Sohg, H., Zhang, L., Russell, R., and Xiao, S. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2003;116(1):15-19.

Baron, J. A., Cole, B. F., Mott, L., Haile, R., Grau, M., Church, T. R., Beck, G. J., and Greenberg, E. R. Neoplastic and antineoplastic effects of beta-carotene on colorectal adenoma recurrence: results of a randomized trial. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 5-21-2003;95(10):717-722.

Goodman, G. E., Thornquist, M. D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M. R., Meyskens, F. L., Jr., Omenn, G. S., Valanis, B., and Williams, J. H., Jr. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-1-2004;96(23):1743-1750.

Worthington, H. V., Clarkson, J. E., and Eden, O. B. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD000978.

Bleys, J., Miller, E. R., III, Pastor-Barriuso, R., Appel, L. J., and Guallar, E. Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84(4):880-887.

Lin, J., Cook, N. R., Albert, C., Zaharris, E., Gaziano, J. M., Van, Denburgh M., Buring, J. E., and Manson, J. E. Vitamins C and E and beta carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a randomized controlled trial. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-7-2009;101(1):14-23.

Cooper, K., Squires, H., Carroll, C., Papaioannou, D., Booth, A., Logan, R. F., Maguire, C., Hind, D., and Tappenden, P. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol.Assess. 2010;14(32):1-206.

Esfahani, A., Wong, J. M., Truan, J., Villa, C. R., Mirrahimi, A., Srichaikul, K., and Kendall, C. W. Health effects of mixed fruit and vegetable concentrates: a systematic review of the clinical interventions. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2011;30(5):285-294.

Lahner, E., Persechino, S., and Annibale, B. Micronutrients (Other than iron) and Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review. Helicobacter. 2012;17(1):1-15.

MacLennan, R., Macrae, F., Bain, C., Battistutta, D., Chapuis, P., Gratten, H., Lambert, J., Newland, R. C., Ngu, M., Russell, A., and . Randomized trial of intake of fat, fiber, and beta carotene to prevent colorectal adenomas. The Australian Polyp Prevention Project. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-6-1995;87(23):1760-1766.

Hofstad, B., Almendingen, K., Vatn, M., Andersen, S. N., Owen, R. W., Larsen, S., and Osnes, M. Growth and recurrence of colorectal polyps: a double-blind 3-year intervention with calcium and antioxidants. Digestion 1998;59(2):148-156.

Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Narvaez, M., Felix, C., and Lopez, A. Dietary calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy hypertension. Lancet 2-3-1990;335(8684):293.

Villar, J. and Repke, J. T. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 1990;163(4 Pt 1):1124-1131.

Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Narvaez, M., Weigel, R. M., and Yepez, R. Calcium supplementation reduces the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in an Andes population. Br J Obstet.Gynaecol. 1989;96(6):648-655.

Villar, J., Repke, J., Belizan, J. M., and Pareja, G. Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure during pregnancy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 1987;70(3 Pt 1):317-322.

Sanchez-Ramos, L., Briones, D. K., Kaunitz, A. M., Delvalle, G. O., Gaudier, F. L., and Walker, C. D. Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium supplementation in angiotensin II-sensitive patients. Obstet.Gynecol. 1994;84(3):349-353.

Thomas, M. G., Thomson, J. P., and Williamson, R. C. Oral calcium inhibits rectal epithelial proliferation in familial adenomatous polyposis. Br.J Surg. 1993;80(4):499-501.

Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Delgado, F., Jacome, P., Teran, E., Ruano, C., and Rivera, J. Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in Ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstet.Gynecol. 1997;90(2):162-167.

Belizan, J. M., Villar, J., Bergel, E., del, Pino A., Di, Fulvio S., Galliano, S. V., and Kattan, C. Long-term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 8-2-1997;315(7103):281-285.

Kulier, R., de, Onis M., Gulmezoglu, A. M., and Villar, J. Nutritional interventions for the prevention of maternal morbidity. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 1998;63(3):231-246.

Czeizel, A. E. and Dudas, I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl.J Med 12-24-1992;327(26):1832-1835.

Terano, T., Fujishiro, S., Ban, T., Yamamoto, K., Tanaka, T., Noguchi, Y., Tamura, Y., Yazawa, K., and Hirayama, T. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases. Lipids 1999;34 Suppl:S345-S346.

Schaefer, E. J., Bongard, V., Beiser, A. S., Lamon-Fava, S., Robins, S. J., Au, R., Tucker, K. L., Kyle, D. J., Wilson, P. W., and Wolf, P. A. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(11):1545-1550.

Jacques, P. F., Selhub, J., Bostom, A. G., Wilson, P. W., and Rosenberg, I. H. The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. N.Engl.J Med 5-13-1999;340(19):1449-1454.

Tee, E. S., Kandiah, M., Awin, N., Chong, S. M., Satgunasingam, N., Kamarudin, L., Milani, S., Dugdale, A. E., and Viteri, F. E. School-administered weekly iron-folate supplements improve hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in Malaysian adolescent girls. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1999;69(6):1249-1256.

Hankey, G. J. and Eikelboom, J. W. Homocysteine and vascular disease. Lancet 7-31-1999;354(9176):407-413.

Ray, J. G. and Laskin, C. A. Folic acid and homocyst(e)ine metabolic defects and the risk of placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: A systematic review. Placenta 1999;20(7):519-529.

Bellamy, M. F., McDowell, I. F., Ramsey, M. W., Brownlee, M., Newcombe, R. G., and Lewis, M. J. Oral folate enhances endothelial function in hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29(8):659-662.

Eikelboom, J. W., Lonn, E., Genest, J., Jr., Hankey, G., and Yusuf, S. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann.Intern.Med 9-7-1999;131(5):363-375.

Berry, R. J., Li, Z., Erickson, J. D., Li, S., Moore, C. A., Wang, H., Mulinare, J., Zhao, P., Wong, L. Y., Gindler, J., Hong, S. X., and Correa, A. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. N.Engl.J.Med. 11-11-1999;341(20):1485-1490.

Torrioli, M. G., Vernacotola, S., Mariotti, P., Bianchi, E., Calvani, M., De Gaetano, A., Chiurazzi, P., and Neri, G. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-acetylcarnitine for the treatment of hyperactive behavior in fragile X syndrome. Am.J Med Genet. 12-3-1999;87(4):366-368.

Rohan, T. E., Jain, M. G., Howe, G. R., and Miller, A. B. Dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 2-2-2000;92(3):266-269.

Roberts, J. D., Poplin, E. A., Tombes, M. B., Kyle, B., Spicer, D. V., Grant, S., Synold, T., and Moran, R. Weekly lometrexol with daily oral folic acid is appropriate for phase II evaluation. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol. 2000;45(2):103-110.

Mahomed, K. Folate supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2000;(2):CD000183.

Thorand, B., Kohlmeier, L., Simonsen, N., Croghan, C., and Thamm, M. Intake of fruits, vegetables, folic acid and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Public Health Nutr 1998;1(3):147-156.

Boers, G. H. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor of arterial vascular disease. Semin.Thromb.Hemost. 2000;26(3):291-295.

Sood, S. K., Ramachandran, K., Mathur, M., Gupta, K., Ramalingaswamy, V., Swarnabai, C., Ponniah, J., Mathan, V. I., and Baker, S. J. W.H.O. sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. 1. The effects of supplemental oral iron administration to pregnant women. Q.J.Med. 1975;44(174):241-258.

Leblanc, M., Pichette, V., Geadah, D., and Ouimet, D. Folic acid and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate losses during high-efficiency hemodialysis in patients without hydrosoluble vitamin supplementation. J Ren Nutr 2000;10(4):196-201.

Chambers, J. C., Ueland, P. M., Obeid, O. A., Wrigley, J., Refsum, H., and Kooner, J. S. Improved vascular endothelial function after oral B vitamins: An effect mediated through reduced concentrations of free plasma homocysteine. Circulation 11-14-2000;102(20):2479-2483.

MacMahon, M., Kirkpatrick, C., Cummings, C. E., Clayton, A., Robinson, P. J., Tomiak, R. H., Liu, M., Kush, D., and Tobert, J. A pilot study with simvastatin and folic acid/vitamin B12 in preparation for the Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2000;10(4):195-203.

Kim, Y. I., Baik, H. W., Fawaz, K., Knox, T., Lee, Y. M., Norton, R., Libby, E., and Mason, J. B. Effects of folate supplementation on two provisional molecular markers of colon cancer: a prospective, randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96(1):184-195.

Multicentric study of efficacy of periconceptional folic acid containing vitamin supplementation in prevention of open neural tube defects from India. Indian J Med Res 2000;112:206-211.

Christiansen, C., Rodbro, P., and Nielsen, C. T. Iatrogenic osteomalacia in epileptic children. A controlled therapeutic trial. Acta Paediatr.Scand 1975;64(2):219-224.

Colman, N., Larsen, J. V., Barker, M., Barker, E. A., Green, R., and Metz, J. Prevention of folate deficiency by food fortification. III. Effect in pregnant subjects of varying amounts of added folic acid. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1975;28(5):465-470.

Iyengar, L. and Rajalakshmi, K. Effect of folic acid supplement on birth weights of infants. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 6-1-1975;122(3):332-336.

Hankey, G. J. and Eikelboom, J. W. Homocysteine and vascular disease. Indian Heart J 2000;52(7 Suppl):S18-S26.

Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Indian Heart J 2000;52(7 Suppl):S59-S64.

Wang, H. X., Wahlin, A., Basun, H., Fastbom, J., Winblad, B., and Fratiglioni, L. Vitamin B(12) and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 5-8-2001;56(9):1188-1194.

Sellers, T. A., Kushi, L. H., Cerhan, J. R., Vierkant, R. A., Gapstur, S. M., Vachon, C. M., Olson, J. E., Therneau, T. M., and Folsom, A. R. Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001;12(4):420-428.

Doshi, S. N., McDowell, I. F., Moat, S. J., Lang, D., Newcombe, R. G., Kredan, M. B., Lewis, M. J., and Goodfellow, J. Folate improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease: an effect mediated by reduction of intracellular superoxide? Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2001;21(7):1196-1202.

van Ede, A. E., Laan, R. F., Rood, M. J., Huizinga, T. W., van de Laar, M. A., van Denderen, C. J., Westgeest, T. A., Romme, T. C., de Rooij, D. J., Jacobs, M. J., de Boo, T. M., van der Wilt, G. J., Severens, J. L., Hartman, M., Krabbe, P. F., Dijkmans, B. A., Breedveld, F. C., and van de Putte, L. B. Effect of folic or folinic acid supplementation on the toxicity and efficacy of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: a forty-eight week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44(7):1515-1524.

Ray, J. G., O'Brien, T. E., and Chan, W. S. Preconception care and the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. QJM. 2001;94(8):435-444.

Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., and Bower, C. Modelling the potential impact of population-wide periconceptional folate/multivitamin supplementation on multiple births. BJOG. 2001;108(9):937-942.

Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., and Bower, C. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2001;(3):CD001056.

van Dijk, R. A., Rauwerda, J. A., Steyn, M., Twisk, J. W., and Stehouwer, C. D. Long-term homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus pyridoxine is associated with decreased blood pressure but not with improved brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation or carotid artery stiffness: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2001;21(12):2072-2079.

Doshi, S. N., McDowell, I. F., Moat, S. J., Payne, N., Durrant, H. J., Lewis, M. J., and Goodfellow, J. Folic acid improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease via mechanisms largely independent of homocysteine lowering. Circulation 1-1-2002;105(1):22-26.

Jorissen, B. L., Brouns, F., van Boxtel, M. P., Ponds, R. W., Verhey, F. R., Jolles, J., and Riedel, W. J. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4(2):121-134.

Seshadri, S., Beiser, A., Selhub, J., Jacques, P. F., Rosenberg, I. H., D'Agostino, R. B., Wilson, P. W., and Wolf, P. A. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. N.Engl.J Med 2-14-2002;346(7):476-483.

Giardiello, F. M., Yang, V. W., Hylind, L. M., Krush, A. J., Petersen, G. M., Trimbath, J. D., Piantadosi, S., Garrett, E., Geiman, D. E., Hubbard, W., Offerhaus, G. J., and Hamilton, S. R. Primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis with sulindac. N.Engl.J Med 4-4-2002;346(14):1054-1059.

Bennett-Richards, K., Kattenhorn, M., Donald, A., Oakley, G., Varghese, Z., Rees, L., and Deanfield, J. E. Does oral folic acid lower total homocysteine levels and improve endothelial function in children with chronic renal failure? Circulation 4-16-2002;105(15):1810-1815.

Maxwell, C. J., Hogan, D. B., and Ebly, E. M. Serum folate levels and subsequent adverse cerebrovascular outcomes in elderly persons. Dement.Geriatr Cogn Disord 2002;13(4):225-234.

Mayer, O., Filipovsky, J., Hromadka, M., Svobodova, V., Racek, J., Mayer, O., Jr., Stehlik, P., Trefil, L., and Zarybnicka, M. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid: effects on homocysteine levels, coagulation status, and oxidative stress markers. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2002;39(6):851-857.

Bryan, J., Calvaresi, E., and Hughes, D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr 2002;132(6):1345-1356.

Williams, L. J., Mai, C. T., Edmonds, L. D., Shaw, G. M., Kirby, R. S., Hobbs, C. A., Sever, L. E., Miller, L. A., Meaney, F. J., and Levitt, M. Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. Teratology 2002;66(1):33-39.

Ray, J. G., Vermeulen, M. J., Boss, S. C., and Cole, D. E. Declining rate of folate insufficiency among adults following increased folic acid food fortification in Canada. Can.J Public Health 2002;93(4):249-253.

Halsted, C. H., Villanueva, J. A., Devlin, A. M., and Chandler, C. J. Metabolic interactions of alcohol and folate. J Nutr 2002;132(8 Suppl):2367S-2372S.

Persad, V. L., Van den Hof, M. C., Dube, J. M., and Zimmer, P. Incidence of open neural tube defects in Nova Scotia after folic acid fortification. CMAJ. 8-6-2002;167(3):241-245.

The nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers in relation to maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Emp. 1946;53(6):498-509.

Sharp, L., Little, J., Schofield, A. C., Pavlidou, E., Cotton, S. C., Miedzybrodzka, Z., Baird, J. O., Haites, N. E., Heys, S. D., and Grubb, D. A. Folate and breast cancer: the role of polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Cancer Lett. 7-8-2002;181(1):65-71.

Hirsch, S., Pia, De la Maza, Yanez, P., Glasinovic, A., Petermann, M., Barrera, G., Gattas, V., Escobar, E., and Bunout, D. Hyperhomocysteinemia and endothelial function in young subjects: effects of vitamin supplementation. Clin Cardiol 2002;25(11):495-501.

Wald, D. S., Law, M., and Morris, J. K. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 11-23-2002;325(7374):1202.

Engelhart, M. J., Geerlings, M. I., Ruitenberg, A., Van Swieten, J. C., Hofman, A., Witteman, J. C., and Breteler, M. M. Diet and risk of dementia: Does fat matter?: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology 12-24-2002;59(12):1915-1921.

Feigelson, H. S., Jonas, C. R., Robertson, A. S., McCullough, M. L., Thun, M. J., and Calle, E. E. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(2):161-164.

Zhang, S. M., Willett, W. C., Selhub, J., Hunter, D. J., Giovannucci, E. L., Holmes, M. D., Colditz, G. A., and Hankinson, S. E. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-5-2003;95(5):373-380.

Sandler, R. S., Halabi, S., Baron, J. A., Budinger, S., Paskett, E., Keresztes, R., Petrelli, N., Pipas, J. M., Karp, D. D., Loprinzi, C. L., Steinbach, G., and Schilsky, R. A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas in patients with previous colorectal cancer. N.Engl.J Med 3-6-2003;348(10):883-890.

Baron, J. A., Cole, B. F., Sandler, R. S., Haile, R. W., Ahnen, D., Bresalier, R., McKeown-Eyssen, G., Summers, R. W., Rothstein, R., Burke, C. A., Snover, D. C., Church, T. R., Allen, J. I., Beach, M., Beck, G. J., Bond, J. H., Byers, T., Greenberg, E. R., Mandel, J. S., Marcon, N., Mott, L. A., Pearson, L., Saibil, F., and van Stolk, R. U. A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas. N.Engl.J Med 3-6-2003;348(10):891-899.

Clarke, R., Lewington, S., and Landray, M. Homocysteine, renal function, and risk of cardiovascular disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2003;(84):S131-S133.

Righetti, M., Ferrario, G. M., Milani, S., Serbelloni, P., La, Rosa L., Uccellini, M., and Sessa, A. Effects of folic acid treatment on homocysteine levels and vascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(4):I19-I24.

Sellers, T. A., Alberts, S. R., Vierkant, R. A., Grabrick, D. M., Cerhan, J. R., Vachon, C. M., Olson, J. E., Kushi, L. H., and Potter, J. D. High-folate diets and breast cancer survival in a prospective cohort study. Nutr.Cancer 2002;44(2):139-144.

Marcucci, R., Zanazzi, M., Bertoni, E., Rosati, A., Fedi, S., Lenti, M., Prisco, D., Castellani, S., Abbate, R., and Salvadori, M. Vitamin supplementation reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic renal-transplant recipients. Transplantation 5-15-2003;75(9):1551-1555.

Clarke, R., Harrison, G., and Richards, S. Effect of vitamins and aspirin on markers of platelet activation, oxidative stress and homocysteine in people at high risk of dementia. J Intern.Med 2003;254(1):67-75.

Thompson, S. J., Torres, M. E., Stevenson, R. E., Dean, J. H., and Best, R. G. Periconceptional multivitamin folic acid use, dietary folate, total folate and risk of neural tube defects in South Carolina. Ann.Epidemiol. 2003;13(6):412-418.

Benamouzig, R., Deyra, J., Martin, A., Girard, B., Jullian, E., Piednoir, B., Couturier, D., Coste, T., Little, J., and Chaussade, S. Daily soluble aspirin and prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: one-year results of the APACC trial. Gastroenterology 2003;125(2):328-336.

Cho, E., Spiegelman, D., Hunter, D. J., Chen, W. Y., Zhang, S. M., Colditz, G. A., and Willett, W. C. Premenopausal intakes of vitamins A, C, and E, folate, and carotenoids, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(8):713-720.

Sommer, B. R., Hoff, A. L., and Costa, M. Folic acid supplementation in dementia: a preliminary report. J Geriatr.Psychiatry Neurol. 2003;16(3):156-159.

Deijen, J. B., van der Beek, E. J., Orlebeke, J. F., and van den Berg, H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;109(4):489-496.

Batu, A. T., Toe, T., Pe, H., and Nyunt, K. K. A prophylactic trial of iron and folic acid supplements in pregnant Burmese women. Isr.J.Med.Sci. 1976;12(12):1410-1417.

Shen, H., Wei, Q., Pillow, P. C., Amos, C. I., Hong, W. K., and Spitz, M. R. Dietary folate intake and lung cancer risk in former smokers: a case-control analysis. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(10):980-986.

Malouf, M., Grimley, E. J., and Areosa, S. A. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2003;(4):CD004514.

Wilson, R. D., Davies, G., Desilets, V., Reid, G. J., Summers, A., Wyatt, P., and Young, D. The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003;25(11):959-973.

Dinckal, M. H., Aksoy, N., Aksoy, M., Davutoglu, V., Soydinc, S., Kirilmaz, A., Dinckal, N., and Akdemir, I. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy on vascular endothelial function and exercise performance in coronary patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia. Acta Cardiol 2003;58(5):389-396.

Laurin, D., Verreault, R., Lindsay, J., Dewailly, E., and Holub, B. J. Omega-3 fatty acids and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2003;5(4):315-322.

Bellisarii, F. I., Gallina, S., Zimarino, M., and De, Caterina R. Mechanisms of nitrate tolerance: potential roles of folate. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33(11):933-940.

Woodman, R. J., Celermajer, D. E., Thompson, P. L., and Hung, J. Folic acid does not improve endothelial function in healthy hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106(4):353-358.

Spence, J. D., Blake, C., Landry, A., and Fenster, A. Measurement of carotid plaque and effect of vitamin therapy for total homocysteine. Clin.Chem.Lab Med 2003;41(11):1498-1504.

Ray, J. G., Meier, C., Vermeulen, M. J., Wyatt, P. R., and Cole, D. E. Association between folic acid food fortification and congenital orofacial clefts. J Pediatr 2003;143(6):805-807.

Zhu, K., Davidson, N. E., Hunter, S., Yang, X., Payne-Wilks, K., Roland, C. L., Phillips, D., Bentley, C., Dai, M., and Williams, S. M. Methyl-group dietary intake and risk of breast cancer among African-American women: a case-control study by methylation status of the estrogen receptor alpha genes. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14(9):827-836.

Adzersen, K. H., Jess, P., Freivogel, K. W., Gerhard, I., and Bastert, G. Raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, selected micronutrients, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Germany. Nutr.Cancer 2003;46(2):131-137.

Ratanachu-Ek, S. Effects of multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in malnourished children. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2003;86 Suppl 3:S537-S542.

Diculescu, M., Ciocirlan, M., Ciocirlan, M., Pitigoi, D., Becheanu, G., Croitoru, A., and Spanache, S. Folic acid and sulfasalazine for colorectal carcinoma chemoprevention in patients with ulcerative colitis: the old and new evidence. Rom.J Gastroenterol 2003;12(4):283-286.

De, Wals P., Rusen, I. D., Lee, N. S., Morin, P., and Niyonsenga, T. Trend in prevalence of neural tube defects in Quebec. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2003;67(11):919-923.

Wrone, E. M., Hornberger, J. M., Zehnder, J. L., McCann, L. M., Coplon, N. S., and Fortmann, S. P. Randomized trial of folic acid for prevention of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease. J.Am.Soc.Nephrol. 2004;15(2):420-426.

Kirke, P. N., Daly, L. E., and Elwood, J. H. A randomised trial of low dose folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. The Irish Vitamin Study Group. Arch Dis.Child 1992;67(12):1442-1446.

Shrubsole, M. J., Gao, Y. T., Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Dai, Q., Hebert, J. R., Jin, F., and Zheng, W. MTHFR polymorphisms, dietary folate intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(2):190-196.

Liem, A. H., van Boven, A. J., Veeger, N. J., Withagen, A. J., Robles de Medina, R. M., Tijssen, J. G., and van Veldhuisen, D. J. Efficacy of folic acid when added to statin therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia following acute myocardial infarction: a randomised pilot trial. Int J Cardiol 2004;93(2-3):175-179.

Melse-Boonstra, A., West, C. E., Katan, M. B., Kok, F. J., and Verhoef, P. Bioavailability of heptaglutamyl relative to monoglutamyl folic acid in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(3):424-429.

Pena, A. S., Wiltshire, E., Gent, R., Hirte, C., and Couper, J. Folic acid improves endothelial function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr 2004;144(4):500-504.

Beilby, J., Ingram, D., Hahnel, R., and Rossi, E. Reduced breast cancer risk with increasing serum folate in a case-control study of the C677T genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Eur.J.Cancer 2004;40(8):1250-1254.

Luchsinger, J. A., Tang, M. X., Shea, S., Miller, J., Green, R., and Mayeux, R. Plasma homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 6-8-2004;62(11):1972-1976.

Ellinson, M., Thomas, J., and Patterson, A. A critical evaluation of the relationship between serum vitamin B, folate and total homocysteine with cognitive impairment in the elderly. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(4):371-383.

Taylor, M. J., Carney, S. M., Goodwin, G. M., and Geddes, J. R. Folate for depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol 2004;18(2):251-256.

Schwammenthal, Y. and Tanne, D. Homocysteine, B-vitamin supplementation, and stroke prevention: from observational to interventional trials. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3(8):493-495.

Takamura, N., Kondoh, T., Ohgi, S., Arisawa, K., Mine, M., Yamashita, S., and Aoyagi, K. Abnormal folic acid-homocysteine metabolism as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in Japan. Eur J Nutr 2004;43(5):285-287.

Melse-Boonstra, A., Lievers, K. J., Blom, H. J., and Verhoef, P. Bioavailability of polyglutamyl folic acid relative to that of monoglutamyl folic acid in subjects with different genotypes of the glutamate carboxypeptidase II gene. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(3):700-704.

Hvas, A. M., Juul, S., Lauritzen, L., Nexo, E., and Ellegaard, J. No effect of vitamin B-12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study. J Affect.Disord. 2004;81(3):269-273.

Carlsson, C. M., Pharo, L. M., Aeschlimann, S. E., Mitchell, C., Underbakke, G., and Stein, J. H. Effects of multivitamins and low-dose folic acid supplements on flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma homocysteine levels in older adults. Am Heart J 2004;148(3):E11.

Ramos, M. I., Allen, L. H., Haan, M. N., Green, R., and Miller, J. W. Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(4):1024-1028.

Liu, S., West, R., Randell, E., Longerich, L., O'connor, K. S., Scott, H., Crowley, M., Lam, A., Prabhakaran, V., and McCourt, C. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. BMC.Pregnancy.Childbirth. 9-27-2004;4(1):20.

Schmiegel, W., Pox, C., and Kroesen, A. [Ulcerative colitis. Cancer prevention]. Z Gastroenterol 2004;42(9):1014-1018.

Deol, P. S., Barnes, T. A., Dampier, K., John, Pasi K., Oppenheimer, C., and Pavord, S. R. The effects of folic acid supplements on coagulation status in pregnancy. Br.J.Haematol. 2004;127(2):204-208.

Sanjoaquin, M. A., Allen, N., Couto, E., Roddam, A. W., and Key, T. J. Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Int J Cancer 2-20-2005;113(5):825-828.

Czeizel, A. E., Dobo, M., and Vargha, P. Hungarian cohort-controlled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation shows a reduction in certain congenital abnormalities. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2004;70(11):853-861.

Spoelstra-de, M. A., Brouwer, C. B., Terheggen, F., Bollen, J. M., Stehouwer, C. D., and Smulders, Y. M. No effect of folic acid on markers of endothelial dysfunction or inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild hyperhomocysteinaemia. Neth.J Med 2004;62(7):246-253.

Connor, S. L., Ojeda, L. S., Sexton, G., Weidner, G., and Connor, W. E. Diets lower in folic acid and carotenoids are associated with the coronary disease epidemic in Central and Eastern Europe. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(12):1793-1799.

Lekakis, J. P., Papamichael, C. M., Papaioannou, T. G., Dagre, A. G., Stamatelopoulos, K. S., Tryfonopoulos, D., Protogerou, A. D., Stamatelopoulos, S. F., and Mavrikakis, M. Oral folic acid enhances endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolaemia receiving statins. Eur J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil 2004;11(5):416-420.

Ziegler, S., Mittermayer, F., Plank, C., Minar, E., Wolzt, M., and Schernthaner, G. H. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2005;90(4):2175-2178.

Chen, J., Gammon, M. D., Chan, W., Palomeque, C., Wetmur, J. G., Kabat, G. C., Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., and Santella, R. M. One-carbon metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Res 2-15-2005;65(4):1606-1614.

Mangoni, A. A., Sherwood, R. A., Asonganyi, B., Swift, C. G., Thomas, S., and Jackson, S. H. Short-term oral folic acid supplementation enhances endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18(2 Pt 1):220-226.

Charles, D. H., Ness, A. R., Campbell, D., Smith, G. D., Whitley, E., and Hall, M. H. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review. Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2005;19(2):112-124.

Brattstrom, L., Lindgren, A., Israelsson, B., Malinow, M. R., Norrving, B., Upson, B., and Hamfelt, A. Hyperhomocysteinaemia in stroke: prevalence, cause, and relationships to type of stroke and stroke risk factors. Eur J Clin Invest 1992;22(3):214-221.

Ranganathan, L. N. and Ramaratnam, S. Vitamins for epilepsy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(2):CD004304.

Lopez-Camelo, J. S., Orioli, I. M., da Graca, Dutra M., Nazer-Herrera, J., Rivera, N., Ojeda, M. E., Canessa, A., Wettig, E., Fontannaz, A. M., Mellado, C., and Castilla, E. E. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile. Am.J.Med.Genet.A 6-1-2005;135(2):120-125.

Felkner, M., Suarez, L., Hendricks, K., and Larsen, R. Implementation and outcomes of recommended folic acid supplementation in Mexican-American women with prior neural tube defect-affected pregnancies. Prev.Med 2005;40(6):867-871.

Sachdev, P. S., Parslow, R. A., Lux, O., Salonikas, C., Wen, W., Naidoo, D., Christensen, H., and Jorm, A. F. Relationship of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 with depression in a middle-aged community sample. Psychol.Med 2005;35(4):529-538.

Lewerin, C., Matousek, M., Steen, G., Johansson, B., Steen, B., and Nilsson-Ehle, H. Significant correlations of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid with movement and cognitive performance in elderly subjects but no improvement from short-term vitamin therapy: a placebo-controlled randomized study. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;81(5):1155-1162.

Garcia-Closas, R., Castellsague, X., Bosch, X., and Gonzalez, C. A. The role of diet and nutrition in cervical carcinogenesis: a review of recent evidence. Int.J.Cancer 11-20-2005;117(4):629-637.

Carrero, J. J., Lopez-Huertas, E., Salmeron, L. M., Baro, L., and Ros, E. Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain-free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J.Nutr. 2005;135(6):1393-1399.

Till, U., Rohl, P., Jentsch, A., Till, H., Muller, A., Bellstedt, K., Plonne, D., Fink, H. S., Vollandt, R., Sliwka, U., Herrmann, F. H., Petermann, H., and Riezler, R. Decrease of carotid intima-media thickness in patients at risk to cerebral ischemia after supplementation with folic acid, Vitamins B6 and B12. Atherosclerosis 2005;181(1):131-135.

Cronin, S., Furie, K. L., and Kelly, P. J. Dose-related association of MTHFR 677T allele with risk of ischemic stroke: evidence from a cumulative meta-analysis. Stroke 2005;36(7):1581-1587.

Cook, N. R., Lee, I. M., Gaziano, J. M., Gordon, D., Ridker, P. M., Manson, J. E., Hennekens, C. H., and Buring, J. E. Low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 7-6-2005;294(1):47-55.

Williams, C., Kingwell, B. A., Burke, K., McPherson, J., and Dart, A. M. Folic acid supplementation for 3 wk reduces pulse pressure and large artery stiffness independent of MTHFR genotype. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(1):26-31.

Virdis, A., Ghiadoni, L., Versari, D., Salvetti, G., Pinto, S., Favilla, S., Taddei, S., and Salvetti, A. Is Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia a humoral predictor of coronary heart disease? Curr Pharm Des 2005;11(17):2187-2197.

Baglietto, L., English, D. R., Gertig, D. M., Hopper, J. L., and Giles, G. G. Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study. BMJ 10-8-2005;331(7520):807.

Potena, L., Grigioni, F., Magnani, G., Ortolani, P., Coccolo, F., Sassi, S., Kessels, K., Marrozzini, C., Marzocchi, A., Carigi, S., Musuraca, A. C., Russo, A., Magelli, C., and Branzi, A. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and early progression of transplant vasculopathy: a prospective, randomized, IVUS-based study. Am.J Transplant. 2005;5(9):2258-2264.

Liem, A., Reynierse-Buitenwerf, G. H., Zwinderman, A. H., Jukema, J. W., and van Veldhuisen, D. J. Secondary prevention with folic acid: results of the Goes extension study. Heart 2005;91(9):1213-1214.

Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Martelli, M., Servadei, L., Brunetti, N., Porcellini, E., and Licastro, F. Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(3):636-643.

Kuo, H. K., Sorond, F. A., Chen, J. H., Hashmi, A., Milberg, W. P., and Lipsitz, L. A. The role of homocysteine in multisystem age-related problems: a systematic review. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci 2005;60(9):1190-1201.

Huemer, M., Ausserer, B., Graninger, G., Hubmann, M., Huemer, C., Schlachter, K., Tscharre, A., Ulmer, H., and Simma, B. Hyperhomocysteinemia in children treated with antiepileptic drugs is normalized by folic acid supplementation. Epilepsia 2005;46(10):1677-1683.

Bailey, L. B. Do low doses of folic acid result in maximum lowering of homocysteine? Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(4):717-718.

Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(4):806-812.

Mooijaart, S. P., Gussekloo, J., Frolich, M., Jolles, J., Stott, D. J., Westendorp, R. G., and de Craen, A. J. Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, and folic acid and the risk of cognitive decline in old age: the Leiden 85-Plus study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(4):866-871.

Tjonneland, A., Christensen, J., Olsen, A., Stripp, C., Nissen, S. B., Overvad, K., and Thomsen, B. L. Folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in Denmark. Eur.J.Clin Nutr. 2006;60(2):280-286.

Huang, T. L., Zandi, P. P., Tucker, K. L., Fitzpatrick, A. L., Kuller, L. H., Fried, L. P., Burke, G. L., and Carlson, M. C. Benefits of fatty fish on dementia risk are stronger for those without APOE epsilon4. Neurology 11-8-2005;65(9):1409-1414.

Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Martelli, M., Servadei, L., Brunetti, N., Pantieri, G., and Mariani, E. Conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia: predictive role of mild cognitive impairment subtypes and vascular risk factors. Dement.Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;21(1):51-58.

Stott, D. J., MacIntosh, G., Lowe, G. D., Rumley, A., McMahon, A. D., Langhorne, P., Tait, R. C., O'Reilly, D. S., Spilg, E. G., MacDonald, J. B., MacFarlane, P. W., and Westendorp, R. G. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82(6):1320-1326.

Rossi, E., Hung, J., Beilby, J. P., Knuiman, M. W., Divitini, M. L., and Bartholomew, H. Folate levels and cancer morbidity and mortality: prospective cohort study from Busselton, Western Australia. Ann.Epidemiol. 2006;16(3):206-212.

Pathansali, R., Mangoni, A. A., Creagh-Brown, B., Lan, Z. C., Ngow, G. L., Yuan, X. F., Ouldred, E. L., Sherwood, R. A., Swift, C. G., and Jackson, S. H. Effects of folic acid supplementation on psychomotor performance and hemorheology in healthy elderly subjects. Arch Gerontol.Geriatr 2006;43(1):127-137.

Pastore, A., De, Angelis S., Casciani, S., Ruggia, R., Di, Giovamberardino G., Noce, A., Splendiani, G., Cortese, C., Federici, G., and Dessi', M. Effects of folic acid before and after vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients with known MTHFR genotypes. Clin Chem. 2006;52(1):145-148.

Lewis, S. J., Lawlor, D. A., Davey, Smith G., Araya, R., Timpson, N., Day, I. N., and Ebrahim, S. The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. Mol.Psychiatry 2006;11(4):352-360.

Sazawal, S., Black, R. E., Ramsan, M., Chwaya, H. M., Stoltzfus, R. J., Dutta, A., Dhingra, U., Kabole, I., Deb, S., Othman, M. K., and Kabole, F. M. Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 1-14-2006;367(9505):133-143.

Homocysteine-lowering trials for prevention of cardiovascular events: a review of the design and power of the large randomized trials. Am Heart J 2006;151(2):282-287.

Lonn, E., Held, C., Arnold, J. M., Probstfield, J., McQueen, M., Micks, M., Pogue, J., Sheridan, P., Bosch, J., Genest, J., and Yusuf, S. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a large, simple, randomized trial of combined folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 in high-risk patients: the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-2 trial. Can.J Cardiol 2006;22(1):47-53.

Labayle, D., Fischer, D., Vielh, P., Drouhin, F., Pariente, A., Bories, C., Duhamel, O., Trousset, M., and Attali, P. Sulindac causes regression of rectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology 1991;101(3):635-639.

Lonn, E., Yusuf, S., Arnold, M. J., Sheridan, P., Pogue, J., Micks, M., McQueen, M. J., Probstfield, J., Fodor, G., Held, C., and Genest, J., Jr. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N.Engl.J Med 4-13-2006;354(15):1567-1577.

Lajous, M., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Hernandez-Avila, M., Willett, W., and Romieu, I. Folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) intake and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(3):443-448.

Shrubsole, M. J., Gao, Y. T., Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Dai, Q., Jin, F., and Zheng, W. MTR and MTRR polymorphisms, dietary intake, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(3):586-588.

Zoungas, S., McGrath, B. P., Branley, P., Kerr, P. G., Muske, C., Wolfe, R., Atkins, R. C., Nicholls, K., Fraenkel, M., Hutchison, B. G., Walker, R., and McNeil, J. J. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Atherosclerosis and Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (ASFAST) in chronic renal failure: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 3-21-2006;47(6):1108-1116.

Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z., Chang, S. C., Leitzmann, M. F., Johnson, K. A., Johnson, C., Buys, S. S., Hoover, R. N., and Ziegler, R. G. Folate intake, alcohol use, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):895-904.

Iwama, T., Akasu, T., Utsunomiya, J., and Muto, T. Does a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (tiracoxib) induce clinically sufficient suppression of adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis? A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int J Clin Oncol. 2006;11(2):133-139.

Schernthaner, G. H., Plank, C., Minar, E., Bieglmayer, C., Koppensteiner, R., and Schernthaner, G. No effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy on vascular inflammation and haemostasis in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Eur J Clin Invest 2006;36(5):333-339.

Solfrizzi, V., Colacicco, A. M., D'Introno, A., Capurso, C., Del, Parigi A., Capurso, S. A., Argentieri, G., Capurso, A., and Panza, F. Dietary fatty acids intakes and rate of mild cognitive impairment. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Exp.Gerontol. 2006;41(6):619-627.

Salim, A., Tan, E., Ilchyshyn, A., and Berth-Jones, J. Folic acid supplementation during treatment of psoriasis with methotrexate: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(6):1169-1174.

Laitinen, M. H., Ngandu, T., Rovio, S., Helkala, E. L., Uusitalo, U., Viitanen, M., Nissinen, A., Tuomilehto, J., Soininen, H., and Kivipelto, M. Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study. Dement.Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22(1):99-107.

Barrios, M. and Alliot, C. Venous thrombosis associated with pernicious anaemia. A report of two cases and review. Hematology. 2006;11(2):135-138.

Righetti, M., Serbelloni, P., Milani, S., and Ferrario, G. Homocysteine-lowering vitamin B treatment decreases cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif. 2006;24(4):379-386.

Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Lancet 7-20-1991;338(8760):131-137.

Chou, Y. C., Wu, M. H., Yu, J. C., Lee, M. S., Yang, T., Shih, H. L., Wu, T. Y., and Sun, C. A. Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, plasma folate levels and breast cancer susceptibility: a case-control study in Taiwan. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(11):2295-2300.

MacKenzie, K. E., Wiltshire, E. J., Gent, R., Hirte, C., Piotto, L., and Couper, J. J. Folate and vitamin B6 rapidly normalize endothelial dysfunction in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2006;118(1):242-253.

McKillop, D. J., McNulty, H., Scott, J. M., McPartlin, J. M., Strain, J. J., Bradbury, I., Girvan, J., Hoey, L., McCreedy, R., Alexander, J., Patterson, B. K., Hannon-Fletcher, M., and Pentieva, K. The rate of intestinal absorption of natural food folates is not related to the extent of folate conjugation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):167-173.

Pena-Rosas, J. P. and Viteri, F. E. Effects of routine oral iron supplementation with or without folic acid for women during pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2006;3:CD004736.

Annerbo, S., Wahlund, L. O., and Lokk, J. The significance of thyroid-stimulating hormone and homocysteine in the development of Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment: a 6-year follow-up study. Am J Alzheimers.Dis.Other Demen. 2006;21(3):182-188.

Klingler, M., Blaschitz, A., Campoy, C., Cano, A., Molloy, A. M., Scott, J. M., Dohr, G., Demmelmair, H., Koletzko, B., and Desoye, G. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid and folic acid supplementation on placental apoptosis and proliferation. Br J Nutr 2006;96(1):182-190.

Olthof, M. R., Bots, M. L., Katan, M. B., and Verhoef, P. Effect of folic acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers. PLoS.Clin Trials 2006;1(2):e10.

Title, L. M., Ur, E., Giddens, K., McQueen, M. J., and Nassar, B. A. Folic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes--an effect independent of homocysteine-lowering. Vasc.Med 2006;11(2):101-109.

Eussen, S. J., de Groot, L. C., Joosten, L. W., Bloo, R. J., Clarke, R., Ueland, P. M., Schneede, J., Blom, H. J., Hoefnagels, W. H., and van Staveren, W. A. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84(2):361-370.

Morris, M. C., Evans, D. A., Schneider, J. A., Tangney, C. C., Bienias, J. L., and Aggarwal, N. T. Dietary folate and vitamins B-12 and B-6 not associated with incident Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2006;9(4):435-443.

Bertagnolli, M. M., Eagle, C. J., Zauber, A. G., Redston, M., Solomon, S. D., Kim, K., Tang, J., Rosenstein, R. B., Wittes, J., Corle, D., Hess, T. M., Woloj, G. M., Boisserie, F., Anderson, W. F., Viner, J. L., Bagheri, D., Burn, J., Chung, D. C., Dewar, T., Foley, T. R., Hoffman, N., Macrae, F., Pruitt, R. E., Saltzman, J. R., Salzberg, B., Sylwestrowicz, T., Gordon, G. B., and Hawk, E. T. Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas. N.Engl.J Med 8-31-2006;355(9):873-884.

Arber, N., Eagle, C. J., Spicak, J., Racz, I., Dite, P., Hajer, J., Zavoral, M., Lechuga, M. J., Gerletti, P., Tang, J., Rosenstein, R. B., Macdonald, K., Bhadra, P., Fowler, R., Wittes, J., Zauber, A. G., Solomon, S. D., and Levin, B. Celecoxib for the prevention of colorectal adenomatous polyps. N.Engl.J Med 8-31-2006;355(9):885-895.

Robbins, J. M., Tilford, J. M., Bird, T. M., Cleves, M. A., Reading, J. A., and Hobbs, C. A. Hospitalizations of newborns with folate-sensitive birth defects before and after fortification of foods with folic acid. Pediatrics 2006;118(3):906-915.

Herrmann, W. Significance of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Lab 2006;52(7-8):367-374.

den, Heijer M., Willems, H. P., Blom, H. J., Gerrits, W. B., Cattaneo, M., Eichinger, S., Rosendaal, F. R., and Bos, G. M. Homocysteine lowering by B vitamins and the secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Blood 1-1-2007;109(1):139-144.

Hubner, R. A., Muir, K. R., Liu, J. F., Sellick, G. S., Logan, R. F., Grainge, M., Armitage, N., Chau, I., and Houlston, R. S. Folate metabolism polymorphisms influence risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(9):1607-1613.

Lajous, M., Romieu, I., Sabia, S., Boutron-Ruault, M. C., and Clavel-Chapelon, F. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Cancer Causes Control 2006;17(9):1209-1213.

Goh, Y. I., Bollano, E., Einarson, T. R., and Koren, G. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of congenital anomalies: a meta-analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006;28(8):680-689.

Larsson, S. C., Giovannucci, E., and Wolk, A. Folate intake, MTHFR polymorphisms, and risk of esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2006;131(4):1271-1283.

Meijer, W. M., Werler, M. M., Louik, C., Hernandez-Diaz, S., de Jong-van den Berg LT, and Mitchell, A. A. Can folic acid protect against congenital heart defects in Down syndrome? Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2006;76(10):714-717.

Fernandez-Miranda, C., Yebra, M., Aranda, J. L., Gomez, P., Martinez, J., Nunez, V., and Gomez, de la Camara. Effect of folic acid treatment on carotid intima-media thickness of patients with coronary disease. Int J Cardiol 6-12-2007;118(3):345-349.

Haider, B. A. and Bhutta, Z. A. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev 2006;(4):CD004905.

Berry-Kravis, E., Krause, S. E., Block, S. S., Guter, S., Wuu, J., Leurgans, S., Decle, P., Potanos, K., Cook, E., Salt, J., Maino, D., Weinberg, D., Lara, R., Jardini, T., Cogswell, J., Johnson, S. A., and Hagerman, R. Effect of CX516, an AMPA-modulating compound, on cognition and behavior in fragile X syndrome: a controlled trial. J Child Adolesc.Psychopharmacol 2006;16(5):525-540.

Melse-Boonstra, A., Verhoef, P., West, C. E., van Rhijn, J. A., van Breemen, R. B., Lasaroms, J. J., Garbis, S. D., Katan, M. B., and Kok, F. J. A dual-isotope-labeling method of studying the bioavailability of hexaglutamyl folic acid relative to that of monoglutamyl folic acid in humans by using multiple orally administered low doses. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(5):1128-1133.

Lewis, S. J., Harbord, R. M., Harris, R., and Smith, G. D. Meta-analyses of observational and genetic association studies of folate intakes or levels and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 11-15-2006;98(22):1607-1622.

Sombolos, K., Papaioannou, A., Christidou, F., Natse, T., Bamichas, G., Gionanlis, L., Katsaris, G., and Progia, E. The effect of two different doses comprising the simultaneous administration of intravenous B-complex vitamins and oral folic acid on serum homocysteine levels in hemodialysis patients. Int.Urol.Nephrol. 2006;38(3-4):725-730.

Badovinac, R. L., Werler, M. M., Williams, P. L., Kelsey, K. T., and Hayes, C. Folic acid-containing supplement consumption during pregnancy and risk for oral clefts: a meta-analysis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2007;79(1):8-15.

Austen, S. K., Fassett, R. G., Geraghty, D. P., and Coombes, J. S. Folate supplementation fails to affect vascular function and carotid artery intima media thickness in cyclosporin A-treated renal transplant recipients. Clin Nephrol. 2006;66(5):373-379.

Clarke, R., Lewington, S., Sherliker, P., and Armitage, J. Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007;10(1):32-39.

Bazzano, L. A., Reynolds, K., Holder, K. N., and He, J. Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 12-13-2006;296(22):2720-2726.

Larsson, S. C., Giovannucci, E., and Wolk, A. Folate and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1-3-2007;99(1):64-76.

Balk, E. M., Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Chung, M., Lau, J., and Rosenberg, I. H. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch.Intern.Med 1-8-2007;167(1):21-30.

Winkels, R. M., Brouwer, I. A., Siebelink, E., Katan, M. B., and Verhoef, P. Bioavailability of food folates is 80% of that of folic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(2):465-473.

Haan, M. N., Miller, J. W., Aiello, A. E., Whitmer, R. A., Jagust, W. J., Mungas, D. M., Allen, L. H., and Green, R. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(2):511-517.

Moens, A. L., Claeys, M. J., Wuyts, F. L., Goovaerts, I., Van, Hertbruggen E., Wendelen, L. C., Van Hoof, V. O., and Vrints, C. J. Effect of folic acid on endothelial function following acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2-15-2007;99(4):476-481.

Goh, Y. I., Bollano, E., Einarson, T. R., and Koren, G. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of pediatric cancers: a meta-analysis. Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2007;81(5):685-691.

Vianna, A. C., Mocelin, A. J., Matsuo, T., Morais-Filho, D., Largura, A., Delfino, V. A., Soares, A. E., and Matni, A. M. Uremic hyperhomocysteinemia: a randomized trial of folate treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Hemodial.Int 2007;11(2):210-216.

Shirodaria, C., Antoniades, C., Lee, J., Jackson, C. E., Robson, M. D., Francis, J. M., Moat, S. J., Ratnatunga, C., Pillai, R., Refsum, H., Neubauer, S., and Channon, K. M. Global improvement of vascular function and redox state with low-dose folic acid: implications for folate therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 5-1-2007;115(17):2262-2270.

Ray, J. G., Kearon, C., Yi, Q., Sheridan, P., and Lonn, E. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and risk for venous thromboembolism: a randomized trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 6-5-2007;146(11):761-767.

McNeill, G., Avenell, A., Campbell, M. K., Cook, J. A., Hannaford, P. C., Kilonzo, M. M., Milne, A. C., Ramsay, C. R., Seymour, D. G., Stephen, A. I., and Vale, L. D. Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation on cognitive function in men and women aged 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial. Nutr J 2007;6:10.

Joelson, D. W., Fiebig, E. W., and Wu, A. H. Diminished need for folate measurements among indigent populations in the post folic acid supplementation era. Arch Pathol.Lab Med 2007;131(3):477-480.

Pena, A. S., Wiltshire, E., Gent, R., Piotto, L., Hirte, C., and Couper, J. Folic acid does not improve endothelial function in obese children and adolescents. Diabetes Care 2007;30(8):2122-2127.

Wang, X., Qin, X., Demirtas, H., Li, J., Mao, G., Huo, Y., Sun, N., Liu, L., and Xu, X. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Lancet 6-2-2007;369(9576):1876-1882.

Cole, B. F., Baron, J. A., Sandler, R. S., Haile, R. W., Ahnen, D. J., Bresalier, R. S., McKeown-Eyssen, G., Summers, R. W., Rothstein, R. I., Burke, C. A., Snover, D. C., Church, T. R., Allen, J. I., Robertson, D. J., Beck, G. J., Bond, J. H., Byers, T., Mandel, J. S., Mott, L. A., Pearson, L. H., Barry, E. L., Rees, J. R., Marcon, N., Saibil, F., Ueland, P. M., and Greenberg, E. R. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 6-6-2007;297(21):2351-2359.

Gilbody, S., Lightfoot, T., and Sheldon, T. Is low folate a risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis and exploration of heterogeneity. J Epidemiol.Community Health 2007;61(7):631-637.

Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Chung, M., Rosenberg, I. H., Lau, J., Lichtenstein, A. H., and Balk, E. M. Heterogeneity and lack of good quality studies limit association between folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and cognitive function. J Nutr 2007;137(7):1789-1794.

Nanayakkara, P. W., van, Guldener C., ter Wee, P. M., Scheffer, P. G., van Ittersum, F. J., Twisk, J. W., Teerlink, T., van, Dorp W., and Stehouwer, C. D. Effect of a treatment strategy consisting of pravastatin, vitamin E, and homocysteine lowering on carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial function, and renal function in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Anti-Oxidant Therapy in Chronic Renal Insufficiency (ATIC) Study. Arch.Intern.Med. 6-25-2007;167(12):1262-1270.

Connelly, P. J., Prentice, N. P., Cousland, G., and Bonham, J. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of folic acid supplementation of cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;23(2):155-160.

Dockerty, J. D., Herbison, P., Skegg, D. C., and Elwood, M. Vitamin and mineral supplements in pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case-control study. BMC.Public Health 2007;7:136.

De, Wals P., Tairou, F., Van Allen, M. I., Uh, S. H., Lowry, R. B., Sibbald, B., Evans, J. A., Van den Hof, M. C., Zimmer, P., Crowley, M., Fernandez, B., Lee, N. S., and Niyonsenga, T. Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada. N.Engl.J Med 7-12-2007;357(2):135-142.

Joyce, D. A., Will, R. K., Hoffman, D. M., Laing, B., and Blackbourn, S. J. Exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis in patients treated with methotrexate after administration of folinic acid. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1991;50(12):913-914.

Ericson, U., Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., and Wirfalt, E. High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2007;86(2):434-443.

de, Bree A., van Mierlo, L. A., and Draijer, R. Folic acid improves vascular reactivity in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86(3):610-617.

Farrell, B., Godwin, J., Richards, S., and Warlow, C. The United Kingdom transient ischaemic attack (UK-TIA) aspirin trial: final results. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 1991;54(12):1044-1054.

Jamison, R. L., Hartigan, P., Kaufman, J. S., Goldfarb, D. S., Warren, S. R., Guarino, P. D., and Gaziano, J. M. Effect of homocysteine lowering on mortality and vascular disease in advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 9-12-2007;298(10):1163-1170.

Kaisar, M., Isbel, N., and Johnson, D. W. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. A clinical review. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2007;59(3):281-297.

Zintzaras, E. Maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and risk of Down syndrome offspring: a meta-analysis. J Hum Genet. 2007;52(11):943-953.

Bowman, L., Armitage, J., Bulbulia, R., Parish, S., and Collins, R. Study of the effectiveness of additional reductions in cholesterol and homocysteine (SEARCH): characteristics of a randomized trial among 12064 myocardial infarction survivors. Am Heart J 2007;154(5):815-23, 823.

Grosse, S. D. and Collins, J. S. Folic acid supplementation and neural tube defect recurrence prevention. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2007;79(11):737-742.

Mann, J. F., Sheridan, P., McQueen, M. J., Held, C., Arnold, J. M., Fodor, G., Yusuf, S., and Lonn, E. M. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in people with chronic kidney disease--results of the renal Hope-2 study. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23(2):645-653.

Logan, R. F., Grainge, M. J., Shepherd, V. C., Armitage, N. C., and Muir, K. R. Aspirin and folic acid for the prevention of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology 2008;134(1):29-38.

Suzuki, T., Matsuo, K., Hirose, K., Hiraki, A., Kawase, T., Watanabe, M., Yamashita, T., Iwata, H., and Tajima, K. One-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 2008;29(2):356-362.

Clarke, R. B-vitamins and prevention of dementia. Proc Nutr Soc 2008;67(1):75-81.

Torrioli, M. G., Vernacotola, S., Peruzzi, L., Tabolacci, E., Mila, M., Militerni, R., Musumeci, S., Ramos, F. J., Frontera, M., Sorge, G., Marzullo, E., Romeo, G., Vallee, L., Veneselli, E., Cocchi, E., Garbarino, E., Moscato, U., Chiurazzi, P., D'Iddio, S., Calvani, M., and Neri, G. A double-blind, parallel, multicenter comparison of L-acetylcarnitine with placebo on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in fragile X syndrome boys. Am.J Med.Genet.A 4-1-2008;146(7):803-812.

Ellis, J. M., Tan, H. K., Gilbert, R. E., Muller, D. P., Henley, W., Moy, R., Pumphrey, R., Ani, C., Davies, S., Edwards, V., Green, H., Salt, A., and Logan, S. Supplementation with antioxidants and folinic acid for children with Down's syndrome: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 3-15-2008;336(7644):594-597.

Hotoleanu, C., Porojan-Iuga, M., Rusu, M. L., and Andercou, A. Hyperhomocysteinemia: clinical and therapeutical involvement in venous thrombosis. Rom.J Intern Med 2007;45(2):159-164.

Sayed, A. R., Bourne, D., Pattinson, R., Nixon, J., and Henderson, B. Decline in the prevalence of neural tube defects following folic acid fortification and its cost-benefit in South Africa. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2008;82(4):211-216.

Soliman, E. Z. and Shalash, O. A. Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention: more negative results. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(4):1069-1070.

McNulty, H., Pentieva, K., Hoey, L., and Ward, M. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and CVD. Proc.Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):232-237.

Potena, L., Grigioni, F., Masetti, M., Magnani, G., Coccolo, F., Fallani, F., Russo, A., Pizzuti, M., Scalone, A., Bianchi, I. G., and Branzi, A. Long-term effect of folic acid therapy in heart transplant recipients: follow-up analysis of a randomized study. Transplantation 4-27-2008;85(8):1146-1150.

Stockley, L. and Lund, V. Use of folic acid supplements, particularly by low-income and young women: a series of systematic reviews to inform public health policy in the UK. Public Health Nutr 2008;11(8):807-821.

Albert, C. M., Cook, N. R., Gaziano, J. M., Zaharris, E., MacFadyen, J., Danielson, E., Buring, J. E., and Manson, J. E. Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 5-7-2008;299(17):2027-2036.

Kaisar, M. O., Isbel, N. M., and Johnson, D. W. Recent clinical trials of pharmacologic cardiovascular interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2008;3(2):79-88.

Van, Dam F. and Van Gool, W. A. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review. Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 2009;48(3):425-430.

Chen, B. H., Carmichael, S. L., Selvin, S., Abrams, B., and Shaw, G. M. NTD prevalences in central California before and after folic acid fortification. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2008;82(8):547-552.

Szczurko, O. and Boon, H. S. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo. BMC.Dermatol. 2008;8:2.

Kile, M. L. and Ronnenberg, A. G. Can folate intake reduce arsenic toxicity? Nutr Rev 2008;66(6):349-353.

Ford, A. H., Flicker, L., Thomas, J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., and Almeida, O. P. Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized trial. J Clin.Psychiatry 2008;69(8):1203-1209.

Johnson, C. Y. and Little, J. Folate intake, markers of folate status and oral clefts: is the evidence converging? Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37(5):1041-1058.

Wolpin, B. M., Wei, E. K., Ng, K., Meyerhardt, J. A., Chan, J. A., Selhub, J., Giovannucci, E. L., and Fuchs, C. S. Prediagnostic plasma folate and the risk of death in patients with colorectal cancer. J.Clin Oncol. 7-1-2008;26(19):3222-3228.

Chen, G., Song, X., Ji, Y., Zhang, L., Pei, L., Chen, J., Liu, J., Li, C., and Zheng, X. Prevention of NTDs with periconceptional multivitamin supplementation containing folic acid in China. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2008;82(8):592-596.

Fioravanti, M., Ferrario, E., Massaia, M., Cappa, G., Rivolta, G., Grossi, E., and Buckley, A. E. Low folate levels in the cognitive decline of elderly patients and the efficacy of folate as a treatment for improving memory deficits. Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 1998;26(1):1-13.

Mao, G., Hong, X., Xing, H., Liu, P., Liu, H., Yu, Y., Zhang, S., Jiang, S., Wang, X., and Xu, X. Efficacy of folic acid and enalapril combined therapy on reduction of blood pressure and plasma glucose: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled, clinical trial. Nutrition 2008;24(11-12):1088-1096.

Kabat, G. C., Miller, A. B., Jain, M., and Rohan, T. E. Dietary intake of selected B vitamins in relation to risk of major cancers in women. Br.J.Cancer 9-2-2008;99(5):816-821.

Hadler, M. C., Sigulem, D. M., Alves, Mde F., and Torres, V. M. Treatment and prevention of anemia with ferrous sulfate plus folic acid in children attending daycare centers in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil: a randomized controlled trial. Cad.Saude Publica 2008;24 Suppl 2:S259-S271.

Jaszewski, R., Misra, S., Tobi, M., Ullah, N., Naumoff, J. A., Kucuk, O., Levi, E., Axelrod, B. N., Patel, B. B., and Majumdar, A. P. Folic acid supplementation inhibits recurrence of colorectal adenomas: a randomized chemoprevention trial. World J Gastroenterol 7-28-2008;14(28):4492-4498.

Strozzi, G. P. and Mogna, L. Quantification of folic acid in human feces after administration of Bifidobacterium probiotic strains. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S179-S184.

Ebbing, M., Bleie, O., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Nilsen, D. W., Vollset, S. E., Refsum, H., Pedersen, E. K., and Nygard, O. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 8-20-2008;300(7):795-804.

Godwin, K. A., Sibbald, B., Bedard, T., Kuzeljevic, B., Lowry, R. B., and Arbour, L. Changes in frequencies of select congenital anomalies since the onset of folic acid fortification in a Canadian birth defect registry. Can.J Public Health 2008;99(4):271-275.

Levine, A. J., Wallace, K., Tsang, S., Haile, R. W., Saibil, F., Ahnen, D., Cole, B. F., Barry, E. L., Munroe, D. J., Ali, I. U., Ueland, P., and Baron, J. A. MTHFR genotype and colorectal adenoma recurrence: data from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(9):2409-2415.

Duffy, C. M., Assaf, A., Cyr, M., Burkholder, G., Coccio, E., Rohan, T., McTiernan, A., Paskett, E., Lane, D., and Chetty, V. K. Alcohol and folate intake and breast cancer risk in the WHI Observational Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;116(3):551-562.

Potter, K., Hankey, G. J., Green, D. J., Eikelboom, J., Jamrozik, K., and Arnolda, L. F. The effect of long-term homocysteine-lowering on carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis. BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord. 2008;8:24.

Kendrick, J. and Chonchol, M. B. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nat.Clin Pract.Nephrol. 2008;4(12):672-681.

Figueiredo, J. C., Levine, A. J., Grau, M. V., Barry, E. L., Ueland, P. M., Ahnen, D. J., Byers, T., Bresalier, R. S., Summers, R. W., Bond, J., McKeown-Eyssen, G. E., Sandler, R. S., Haile, R. W., and Baron, J. A. Colorectal adenomas in a randomized folate trial: the role of baseline dietary and circulating folate levels. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(10):2625-2631.

Malouf, R. and Grimley, Evans J. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for the prevention and treatment of healthy elderly and demented people. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2008;(4):CD004514.

Aisen, P. S., Schneider, L. S., Sano, M., Diaz-Arrastia, R., van Dyck, C. H., Weiner, M. F., Bottiglieri, T., Jin, S., Stokes, K. T., Thomas, R. G., and Thal, L. J. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 10-15-2008;300(15):1774-1783.

Prey, S. and Paul, C. Effect of folic or folinic acid supplementation on methotrexate-associated safety and efficacy in inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160(3):622-628.

Almeida, O. P., McCaul, K., Hankey, G. J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., and Flicker, L. Homocysteine and depression in later life. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 2008;65(11):1286-1294.

Zhang, S. M., Cook, N. R., Albert, C. M., Gaziano, J. M., Buring, J. E., and Manson, J. E. Effect of combined folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 on cancer risk in women: a randomized trial. JAMA 11-5-2008;300(17):2012-2021.

Kalmbach, R. D., Choumenkovitch, S. F., Troen, A. P., Jacques, P. F., D'Agostino, R., and Selhub, J. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate. J Nutr 2008;138(12):2323-2327.

Haberg, S. E., London, S. J., Stigum, H., Nafstad, P., and Nystad, W. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health. Arch Dis.Child 2009;94(3):180-184.

Houghton, L. A., Yang, J., and O'Connor, D. L. Unmetabolized folic acid and total folate concentrations in breast milk are unaffected by low-dose folate supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(1):216-220.

Kang, J. H., Cook, N., Manson, J., Buring, J. E., Albert, C. M., and Grodstein, F. A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;88(6):1602-1610.

Larsson, S. C., Bergkvist, L., and Wolk, A. Folate intake and risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor status in a Swedish cohort. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(12):3444-3449.

Burn, J., Bishop, D. T., Mecklin, J. P., Macrae, F., Moslein, G., Olschwang, S., Bisgaard, M. L., Ramesar, R., Eccles, D., Maher, E. R., Bertario, L., Jarvinen, H. J., Lindblom, A., Evans, D. G., Lubinski, J., Morrison, P. J., Ho, J. W., Vasen, H. F., Side, L., Thomas, H. J., Scott, R. J., Dunlop, M., Barker, G., Elliott, F., Jass, J. R., Fodde, R., Lynch, H. T., and Mathers, J. C. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome. N.Engl.J Med 12-11-2008;359(24):2567-2578.

Weir, D. G. and Scott, J. M. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular and related disease: nutritional implications. Nutr Res.Rev 1998;11(2):311-338.

Ganji, V. and Kafai, M. R. Demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics and serum B vitamin status are determinants of plasma total homocysteine concentration in the post-folic acid fortification period, 1999-2004. J Nutr 2009;139(2):345-352.

Calvo, E. B. and Biglieri, A. [Impact of folic acid fortification on women's nutritional status and on the prevalence of neural tube defects]. Arch.Argent Pediatr. 2008;106(6):492-498.

Maruti, S. S., Ulrich, C. M., and White, E. Folate and one-carbon metabolism nutrients from supplements and diet in relation to breast cancer risk. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2009;89(2):624-633.

Hodis, H. N., Mack, W. J., Dustin, L., Mahrer, P. R., Azen, S. P., Detrano, R., Selhub, J., Alaupovic, P., Liu, C. R., Liu, C. H., Hwang, J., Wilcox, A. G., and Selzer, R. H. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2009;40(3):730-736.

Bower, C., D'Antoine, H., and Stanley, F. J. Neural tube defects in Australia: trends in encephaloceles and other neural tube defects before and after promotion of folic acid supplementation and voluntary food fortification. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2009;85(4):269-273.

Hirsch, S., Sanchez, H., Albala, C., de la Maza, M. P., Barrera, G., Leiva, L., and Bunout, D. Colon cancer in Chile before and after the start of the flour fortification program with folic acid. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21(4):436-439.

Ntaios, G., Savopoulos, C., Karamitsos, D., Economou, I., Destanis, E., Chryssogonidis, I., Pidonia, I., Zebekakis, P., Polatides, C., Sion, M., Grekas, D., and Hatzitolios, A. The effect of folic acid supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with cardiovascular risk: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int.J.Cardiol. 8-6-2010;143(1):16-19.

Blom, H. J. Folic acid, methylation and neural tube closure in humans. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol.Teratol. 2009;85(4):295-302.

Allen, L. H., Peerson, J. M., and Olney, D. K. Provision of multiple rather than two or fewer micronutrients more effectively improves growth and other outcomes in micronutrient-deficient children and adults. J Nutr 2009;139(5):1022-1030.

Ericson, U., Sonestedt, E., Ivarsson, M. I., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., and Wirfalt, E. Folate intake, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in women from the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(4):1101-1110.

Oakley, G. P., Jr. The scientific basis for eliminating folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a modern miracle from epidemiology. Ann.Epidemiol. 2009;19(4):226-230.

Heinz, J., Kropf, S., Luley, C., and Dierkes, J. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients treated by dialysis: a meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(3):478-489.

Nafar, M., Khatami, F., Kardavani, B., Farjad, R., Pour-Reza-Gholi, F., Firouzan, A., Kalantar, A., Farhangi, S., and Einollahi, B. Role of folic acid in atherosclerosis after kidney transplant: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Exp.Clin Transplant. 2009;7(1):33-39.

Ma, E., Iwasaki, M., Junko, I., Hamada, G. S., Nishimoto, I. N., Carvalho, S. M., Motola, J., Jr., Laginha, F. M., and Tsugane, S. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women. BMC.Cancer 2009;9:122.

Behzadi, A. H., Omrani, Z., Chalian, M., Asadi, S., and Ghadiri, M. Folic acid efficacy as an alternative drug added to sodium valproate in the treatment of acute phase of mania in bipolar disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr.Scand. 2009;120(6):441-445.

Wolff, T., Witkop, C. T., Miller, T., and Syed, S. B. Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann.Intern Med 5-5-2009;150(9):632-639.

Yakoob, M. Y., Menezes, E. V., Soomro, T., Haws, R. A., Darmstadt, G. L., and Bhutta, Z. A. Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy. BMC.Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9 Suppl 1:S3.

Ionescu-Ittu, R., Marelli, A. J., Mackie, A. S., and Pilote, L. Prevalence of severe congenital heart disease after folic acid fortification of grain products: time trend analysis in Quebec, Canada. BMJ 2009;338:b1673.

Imasa, M. S., Gomez, N. T., and Nevado, J. B., Jr. Folic acid-based intervention in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Asian Cardiovasc.Thorac.Ann. 2009;17(1):13-21.

Khandanpour, N., Loke, Y. K., Meyer, F. J., Jennings, B., and Armon, M. P. Homocysteine and peripheral arterial disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc.Endovasc.Surg 2009;38(3):316-322.

McRae, M. P. High-dose folic acid supplementation effects on endothelial function and blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. J Chiropr.Med 2009;8(1):15-24.

Azadibakhsh, N., Hosseini, R. S., Atabak, S., Nateghiyan, N., Golestan, B., and Rad, A. H. Efficacy of folate and vitamin B12 in lowering homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Saudi.J.Kidney Dis.Transpl. 2009;20(5):779-788.

Ibrahim, E. M. and Zekri, J. M. Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of recurrence of colorectal adenomas: metaanalysis of interventional trials. Med Oncol. 2010;27(3):915-918.

Ericson, U. C., Ivarsson, M. I., Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., and Wirfalt, E. Increased breast cancer risk at high plasma folate concentrations among women with the MTHFR 677T allele. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1380-1389.

Koppen, I. J., Hermans, F. J., and Kaspers, G. J. Folate related gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to develop childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2010;148(1):3-14.

Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Sola, I., Lathyris, D., and Salanti, G. Homocysteine lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2009;(4):CD006612.

Rueda, J. R., Ballesteros, J., and Tejada, M. I. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome. BMC.Neurol. 2009;9:53.

Ma, E., Iwasaki, M., Kobayashi, M., Kasuga, Y., Yokoyama, S., Onuma, H., Nishimura, H., Kusama, R., and Tsugane, S. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(4):447-456.

Fife, J., Raniga, S., Hider, P. N., and Frizelle, F. A. Folic acid supplementation and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(2):132-137.

Wu, K., Platz, E. A., Willett, W. C., Fuchs, C. S., Selhub, J., Rosner, B. A., Hunter, D. J., and Giovannucci, E. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(6):1623-1631.

Whitrow, M. J., Moore, V. M., Rumbold, A. R., and Davies, M. J. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 12-15-2009;170(12):1486-1493.

Mei, W., Rong, Y., Jinming, L., Yongjun, L., and Hui, Z. Effect of homocysteine interventions on the risk of cardiocerebrovascular events: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64(2):208-215.

Papandreou, D., Malindretos, P., Arvanitidou, M., Makedou, A., and Rousso, I. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid supplements in children: effects on blood pressure. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2010;61(1):11-17.

Oaks, B. M., Dodd, K. W., Meinhold, C. L., Jiao, L., Church, T. R., and Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z. Folate intake, post-folic acid grain fortification, and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(2):449-455.

Jian, M., Wang, J., and Sun, H. [Meta-analysis of effect of intervention with folic acid on neural tube defects]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2009;38(6):682-684.

Bin, Q., Li, J., Liao, C., Cao, Y., and Gao, F. Oral uracil-tegafur Plus Leucovorin versus Fluorouracil Bolus Plus Leucovorin For Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials. Colorectal Dis. 12-28-2009;

Poppell, T. D., Keeling, S. D., Collins, J. F., and Hassell, T. M. Effect of folic acid on recurrence of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth following gingivectomy. J Clin Periodontol. 1991;18(2):134-139.

Montagnani, F., Chiriatti, A., Turrisi, G., Francini, G., and Fiorentini, G. A systematic review of FOLFOXIRI chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: improved efficacy at the cost of increased toxicity. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(8):846-852.

Blehaut, H., Mircher, C., Ravel, A., Conte, M., de, Portzamparc, V, Poret, G., de Kermadec, F. H., Rethore, M. O., and Sturtz, F. G. Effect of leucovorin (folinic acid) on the developmental quotient of children with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) and influence of thyroid status. PLoS.One. 2010;5(1):e8394.

Carroll, C., Cooper, K., Papaioannou, D., Hind, D., Tappenden, P., Pilgrim, H., and Booth, A. Meta-analysis: folic acid in the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther 2010;31(7):708-718.

Hemminki, E. and Rimpela, U. A randomized comparison of routine versus selective iron supplementation during pregnancy. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1991;10(1):3-10.

Clarke, R., Daly, L., Robinson, K., Naughten, E., Cahalane, S., Fowler, B., and Graham, I. Hyperhomocysteinemia: an independent risk factor for vascular disease. N.Engl.J Med 4-25-1991;324(17):1149-1155.

Allen, L. H. and Peerson, J. M. Impact of multiple micronutrient versus iron-folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(4 Suppl):S527-S532.

Shrimpton, R., Huffman, S. L., Zehner, E. R., Darnton-Hill, I., and Dalmiya, N. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in developing-country settings: policy and program implications of the results of a meta-analysis. Food Nutr Bull 2009;30(4 Suppl):S556-S573.

Lin, J., Lee, I. M., Song, Y., Cook, N. R., Selhub, J., Manson, J. E., Buring, J. E., and Zhang, S. M. Plasma homocysteine and cysteine and risk of breast cancer in women. Cancer Res 3-15-2010;70(6):2397-2405.

Mendez-Gonzalez, J., Rodriguez-Millan, E., Julve, J., and Blanco-Vaca, F. [Vitamin treatments that lower homocysteine concentration: can they decrease cerebrovascular disease in primary prevention?]. Rev Neurol. 2-16-2010;50(4):235-244.

Heinz, J., Kropf, S., Domrose, U., Westphal, S., Borucki, K., Luley, C., Neumann, K. H., and Dierkes, J. B vitamins and the risk of total mortality and cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease: results of a randomized controlled trial. Circulation 3-30-2010;121(12):1432-1438.

Blencowe, H., Cousens, S., Modell, B., and Lawn, J. Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i110-i121.

Oakley, G. P., Jr. Folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a good start but much to be done. Am J Prev.Med 2010;38(5):569-570.

Stevens, V. L., McCullough, M. L., Sun, J., and Gapstur, S. M. Folate and other one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1708-1715.

Lee, M., Hong, K. S., Chang, S. C., and Saver, J. L. Efficacy of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic Acid in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2010;41(6):1205-1212.

Christian, P. Micronutrients, birth weight, and survival. Annu.Rev Nutr 8-21-2010;30:83-104.

House, A. A., Eliasziw, M., Cattran, D. C., Churchill, D. N., Oliver, M. J., Fine, A., Dresser, G. K., and Spence, J. D. Effect of B-vitamin therapy on progression of diabetic nephropathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 4-28-2010;303(16):1603-1609.

Hoch, A. Z., Lynch, S. L., Jurva, J. W., Schimke, J. E., and Gutterman, D. D. Folic acid supplementation improves vascular function in amenorrheic runners. Clin J Sport Med 2010;20(3):205-210.

Collin, S. M., Metcalfe, C., Refsum, H., Lewis, S. J., Zuccolo, L., Smith, G. D., Chen, L., Harris, R., Davis, M., Marsden, G., Johnston, C., Lane, J. A., Ebbing, M., Bonaa, K. H., Nygard, O., Ueland, P. M., Grau, M. V., Baron, J. A., Donovan, J. L., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., Smith, A. D., and Martin, R. M. Circulating folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, vitamin B12 transport proteins, and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(6):1632-1642.

Wald, D. S., Kasturiratne, A., and Simmonds, M. Effect of folic acid, with or without other B vitamins, on cognitive decline: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2010;123(6):522-527.

Armitage, J. M., Bowman, L., Clarke, R. J., Wallendszus, K., Bulbulia, R., Rahimi, K., Haynes, R., Parish, S., Sleight, P., Peto, R., and Collins, R. Effects of homocysteine-lowering with folic acid plus vitamin B12 vs placebo on mortality and major morbidity in myocardial infarction survivors: a randomized trial. JAMA 6-23-2010;303(24):2486-2494.

Ericson, U., Borgquist, S., Ivarsson, M. I., Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Jirstrom, K., and Wirfalt, E. Plasma folate concentrations are positively associated with risk of estrogen receptor beta negative breast cancer in a Swedish nested case control study. J.Nutr. 2010;140(9):1661-1668.

Lazarou, C. and Kapsou, M. The role of folic acid in prevention and treatment of depression: an overview of existing evidence and implications for practice. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16(3):161-166.

Simmer, K., Lort-Phillips, L., James, C., and Thompson, R. P. A double-blind trial of zinc supplementation in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991;45(3):139-144.

B vitamins in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(9):855-865.

Miller, E. R., III, Juraschek, S., Pastor-Barriuso, R., Bazzano, L. A., Appel, L. J., and Guallar, E. Meta-analysis of folic acid supplementation trials on risk of cardiovascular disease and risk interaction with baseline homocysteine levels. Am J Cardiol 8-15-2010;106(4):517-527.

Roswall, N., Olsen, A., Christensen, J., Dragsted, L. O., Overvad, K., and Tjonneland, A. Micronutrient intake and breast cancer characteristics among postmenopausal women. Eur.J.Cancer Prev. 2010;19(5):360-365.

Ebbing, M., Bonaa, K. H., Arnesen, E., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Rasmussen, K., Njolstad, I., Nilsen, D. W., Refsum, H., Tverdal, A., Vollset, S. E., Schirmer, H., Bleie, O., Steigen, T., Midttun, O., Fredriksen, A., Pedersen, E. R., and Nygard, O. Combined analyses and extended follow-up of two randomized controlled homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin trials. J Intern.Med 2010;268(4):367-382.

CDC Grand Rounds: additional opportunities to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid fortification. MMWR Morb.Mortal.Wkly.Rep 8-13-2010;59(31):980-984.

Saposnik, G. Meta analysis suggests that folic acid supplementation does not reduce risk of stroke, but there may be some benefit when given in combination with vitamins B6 and B12 and in primary prevention. Evid.Based Med 2010;15(6):168-170.

Kim, D. H., Smith-Warner, S. A., Spiegelman, D., Yaun, S. S., Colditz, G. A., Freudenheim, J. L., Giovannucci, E., Goldbohm, R. A., Graham, S., Harnack, L., Jacobs, E. J., Leitzmann, M., Mannisto, S., Miller, A. B., Potter, J. D., Rohan, T. E., Schatzkin, A., Speizer, F. E., Stevens, V. L., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., Terry, P., Toniolo, P., Weijenberg, M. P., Willett, W. C., Wolk, A., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., and Hunter, D. J. Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21(11):1919-1930.

Hogeveen, M., den, Heijer M., Schonbeck, Y., Ijland, M., van, Oppenraaij D., Gunnewiek, J. K., and Blom, H. J. The effect of folinic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentrations in newborns. Eur.J.Clin Nutr. 2010;64(11):1266-1271.

Chiaffarino, F., Ascone, G. B., Bortolus, R., Mastroia-Covo, P., Ricci, E., Cipriani, S., and Parazzini, F. [Effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: a review of randomized clinical trials]. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62(4):293-301.

Obeid, R., Kasoha, M., Kirsch, S. H., Munz, W., and Herrmann, W. Concentrations of unmetabolized folic acid and primary folate forms in pregnant women at delivery and in umbilical cord blood. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92(6):1416-1422.

Dangour, A. D., Whitehouse, P. J., Rafferty, K., Mitchell, S. A., Smith, L., Hawkesworth, S., and Vellas, B. B-vitamins and fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a systematic review. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2010;22(1):205-224.

Ford, A. H., Flicker, L., Alfonso, H., Thomas, J., Clarnette, R., Martins, R., and Almeida, O. P. Vitamins B(12), B(6), and folic acid for cognition in older men. Neurology 10-26-2010;75(17):1540-1547.

Rosado, J. L., Gonzalez, K. E., Caamano, Mdel C., Garcia, O. P., Preciado, R., and Odio, M. Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial. Nutr.J. 2010;9:40.

De-Regil, L. M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A. C., Dowswell, T., and Pena-Rosas, J. P. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2010;(10):CD007950.

Ling, W., Fan, J., Ma, Y., Ma, Y., and Wang, H. Capecitabine-based chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. J.Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137(6):927-938.

Clarke, R., Halsey, J., Lewington, S., Lonn, E., Armitage, J., Manson, J. E., Bonaa, K. H., Spence, J. D., Nygard, O., Jamison, R., Gaziano, J. M., Guarino, P., Bennett, D., Mir, F., Peto, R., and Collins, R. Effects of lowering homocysteine levels with B vitamins on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cause-specific mortality: Meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials involving 37 485 individuals. Arch.Intern.Med 10-11-2010;170(18):1622-1631.

Tighe, P., Ward, M., McNulty, H., Finnegan, O., Dunne, A., Strain, J., Molloy, A. M., Duffy, M., Pentieva, K., and Scott, J. M. A dose-finding trial of the effect of long-term folic acid intervention: implications for food fortification policy. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(1):11-18.

Clarke, R., Halsey, J., Bennett, D., and Lewington, S. Homocysteine and vascular disease: review of published results of the homocysteine-lowering trials. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. 2011;34(1):83-91.

DiFabio, J. M., Gori, T., Thomas, G., Jedrzkiewicz, S., and Parker, J. D. Daily low-dose folic acid supplementation does not prevent nitroglycerin-induced nitric oxide synthase dysfunction and tolerance: a human in vivo study. Can.J Cardiol 2010;26(9):461-465.

Qin, X., Huo, Y., Langman, C. B., Hou, F., Chen, Y., Matossian, D., Xu, X., and Wang, X. Folic acid therapy and cardiovascular disease in ESRD or advanced chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(3):482-488.

Figueiredo, J. C., Mott, L. A., Giovannucci, E., Wu, K., Cole, B., Grainge, M. J., Logan, R. F., and Baron, J. A. Folic acid and prevention of colorectal adenomas: a combined analysis of randomized clinical trials. Int J Cancer 7-1-2011;129(1):192-203.

Kennedy, D. A., Stern, S. J., Moretti, M., Matok, I., Sarkar, M., Nickel, C., and Koren, G. Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(1):2-10.

Kwok, T., Lee, J., Law, C. B., Pan, P. C., Yung, C. Y., Choi, K. C., and Lam, L. C. A randomized placebo controlled trial of homocysteine lowering to reduce cognitive decline in older demented people. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(3):297-302.

Singh, J. A., Reddy, S. G., and Kundukulam, J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Opin.Rheumatol. 2011;23(2):192-202.

Luhmann, D., Schramm, S., and Raspe, H. The role of Homocysteine as a predictor for coronary heart disease. GMS.Health Technol Assess. 2007;3:Doc11.

Wald, D. S., Morris, J. K., and Wald, N. J. Reconciling the evidence on serum homocysteine and ischaemic heart disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS.One. 2011;6(2):e16473.

Buckley, L. M., Vacek, P. M., and Cooper, S. M. Administration of folinic acid after low dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1990;17(9):1158-1161.

Durga, J., Bots, M. L., Schouten, E. G., Grobbee, D. E., Kok, F. J., and Verhoef, P. Effect of 3 y of folic acid supplementation on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in older adults. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):941-949.

Shrubsole, M. J., Shu, X. O., Li, H. L., Cai, H., Yang, G., Gao, Y. T., Gao, J., and Zheng, W. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. Am.J.Epidemiol. 5-15-2011;173(10):1171-1182.

Arya, R., Gulati, S., Kabra, M., Sahu, J. K., and Kalra, V. Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children. Neurology 4-12-2011;76(15):1338-1343.

Bostom, A. G., Carpenter, M. A., Kusek, J. W., Levey, A. S., Hunsicker, L., Pfeffer, M. A., Selhub, J., Jacques, P. F., Cole, E., Gravens-Mueller, L., House, A. A., Kew, C., McKenney, J. L., Pacheco-Silva, A., Pesavento, T., Pirsch, J., Smith, S., Solomon, S., and Weir, M. Homocysteine-lowering and cardiovascular disease outcomes in kidney transplant recipients: primary results from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation trial. Circulation 4-26-2011;123(16):1763-1770.

Bhutta, Z. A., Yakoob, M. Y., Lawn, J. E., Rizvi, A., Friberg, I. K., Weissman, E., Buchmann, E., and Goldenberg, R. L. Stillbirths: what difference can we make and at what cost? Lancet 4-30-2011;377(9776):1523-1538.

Haider, B. A., Yakoob, M. Y., and Bhutta, Z. A. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes. BMC.Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S19.

Yakoob, M. Y. and Bhutta, Z. A. Effect of routine iron supplementation with or without folic acid on anemia during pregnancy. BMC Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S21.

Imdad, A., Yakoob, M. Y., and Bhutta, Z. A. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths. BMC.Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S4.

Van, Loon K. and Venook, A. P. Adjuvant treatment of colon cancer: what is next? Curr Opin.Oncol. 2011;23(4):403-409.

Toriello, H. V. Policy statement on folic acid and neural tube defects. Genet.Med. 2011;13(6):593-596.

Daviglus, M. L., Plassman, B. L., Pirzada, A., Bell, C. C., Bowen, P. E., Burke, J. R., Connolly, E. S., Jr., Dunbar-Jacob, J. M., Granieri, E. C., McGarry, K., Patel, D., Trevisan, M., and Williams, J. W., Jr. Risk factors and preventive interventions for Alzheimer disease: state of the science. Arch.Neurol. 2011;68(9):1185-1190.

Rueda, J. R., Ballesteros, J., Guillen, V., Tejada, M. I., and Sola, I. Folic acid for fragile X syndrome. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;(5):CD008476.

Zhu, Y., He, Z. Y., and Liu, H. N. Meta-analysis of the relationship between homocysteine, vitamin B(1)(2), folate, and multiple sclerosis. J.Clin Neurosci. 2011;18(7):933-938.

Wang, Z. P., Shang, X. X., and Zhao, Z. T. Low maternal vitamin B(12) is a risk factor for neural tube defects: a meta-analysis. J.Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(4):389-394.

Kawai, K., Spiegelman, D., Shankar, A. H., and Fawzi, W. W. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and pregnancy outcomes in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Bull.World Health Organ 6-1-2011;89(6):402-411B.

Ho, R. C., Cheung, M. W., Fu, E., Win, H. H., Zaw, M. H., Ng, A., and Mak, A. Is high homocysteine level a risk factor for cognitive decline in elderly? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Am.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2011;19(7):607-617.

Green, R. Indicators for assessing folate and vitamin B-12 status and for monitoring the efficacy of intervention strategies. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):666S-672S.

de Jager, C. A., Oulhaj, A., Jacoby, R., Refsum, H., and Smith, A. D. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2012;27(6):592-600.

Wald, D. S., Kasturiratne, A., and Simmonds, M. Serum homocysteine and dementia: meta-analysis of eight cohort studies including 8669 participants. Alzheimers.Dement. 2011;7(4):412-417.

Gargari, B. P., Aghamohammadi, V., and Aliasgharzadeh, A. Effect of folic acid supplementation on biochemical indices in overweight and obese men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94(1):33-38.

Holmes, M. V., Newcombe, P., Hubacek, J. A., Sofat, R., Ricketts, S. L., Cooper, J., Breteler, M. M., Bautista, L. E., Sharma, P., Whittaker, J. C., Smeeth, L., Fowkes, F. G., Algra, A., Shmeleva, V., Szolnoki, Z., Roest, M., Linnebank, M., Zacho, J., Nalls, M. A., Singleton, A. B., Ferrucci, L., Hardy, J., Worrall, B. B., Rich, S. S., Matarin, M., Norman, P. E., Flicker, L., Almeida, O. P., van Bockxmeer, F. M., Shimokata, H., Khaw, K. T., Wareham, N. J., Bobak, M., Sterne, J. A., Smith, G. D., Talmud, P. J., van, Duijn C., Humphries, S. E., Price, J. F., Ebrahim, S., Lawlor, D. A., Hankey, G. J., Meschia, J. F., Sandhu, M. S., Hingorani, A. D., and Casas, J. P. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of genetic studies and randomised trials. Lancet 8-13-2011;378(9791):584-594.

Debreceni, B. and Debreceni, L. Why do homocysteine-lowering B vitamin and antioxidant E vitamin supplementations appear to be ineffective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases? Cardiovasc.Ther. 2012;30(4):227-233.

Aghamohammadi, V., Gargari, B. P., and Aliasgharzadeh, A. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine, serum total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2011;30(3):210-215.

Lam, V. W., Spiro, C., Laurence, J. M., Johnston, E., Hollands, M. J., Pleass, H. C., and Richardson, A. J. A systematic review of clinical response and survival outcomes of downsizing systemic chemotherapy and rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2012;19(4):1292-1301.

Wang, Z. M., Zhou, B., Nie, Z. L., Gao, W., Wang, Y. S., Zhao, H., Zhu, J., Yan, J. J., Yang, Z. J., and Wang, L. S. Folate and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2012;22(10):890-899.

O'Donnell, E., Goodman, J. M., and Harvey, P. J. Clinical review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: a focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active women. J.Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2011;96(12):3638-3648.

Ramakrishnan, U., Goldenberg, T., and Allen, L. H. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development? J.Nutr. 2011;141(11):2066-2075.

Zhou, Y. H., Tang, J. Y., Wu, M. J., Lu, J., Wei, X., Qin, Y. Y., Wang, C., Xu, J. F., and He, J. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS.One. 2011;6(9):e25142.

Lazzeroni, M., Gandini, S., Puntoni, M., Bonanni, B., Gennari, A., and Decensi, A. The science behind vitamins and natural compounds for breast cancer prevention. Getting the most prevention out of it. Breast 2011;20 Suppl 3:S36-S41.

Sarris, J., Mischoulon, D., and Schweitzer, I. Adjunctive nutraceuticals with standard pharmacotherapies in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of clinical trials. Bipolar.Disord. 2011;13(5-6):454-465.

Baggott, J. E., Oster, R. A., and Tamura, T. Meta-analysis of cancer risk in folic acid supplementation trials. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36(1):78-81.

Bao, Y., Michaud, D. S., Spiegelman, D., Albanes, D., Anderson, K. E., Bernstein, L., van den Brandt, P. A., English, D. R., Freudenheim, J. L., Fuchs, C. S., Giles, G. G., Giovannucci, E., Goldbohm, R. A., Hakansson, N., Horn-Ross, P. L., Jacobs, E. J., Kitahara, C. M., Marshall, J. R., Miller, A. B., Robien, K., Rohan, T. E., Schatzkin, A., Stevens, V. L., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z., Virtamo, J., Wolk, A., Ziegler, R. G., and Smith-Warner, S. A. Folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-21-2011;103(24):1840-1850.

Morris, M. C. Nutritional determinants of cognitive aging and dementia. Proc.Nutr.Soc. 2012;71(1):1-13.

Vieitez, J. M., Garcia-Carbonero, R., Aparicio, J., Feliu, J., Gonzalez-Flores, E., Grande, E., Perez-Hoyos, T., Salud, A., Torres, E., Valero, M., Valladares-Ayerbes, M., and Diaz-Rubio, E. Recommendations and expert opinion on the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in Spain. Clin Transl.Oncol. 2011;13(11):798-804.

Solimando, R., Bazzoli, F., and Ricciardiello, L. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a role for ursodeoxycholic acid, folate and hormone replacement treatment? Best.Pract.Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011;25(4-5):555-568.

Czeizel, A. E. Periconceptional folic acid-containing multivitamin supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects and cardiovascular malformations. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2011;59(1):38-40.

Xu, F., Zhang, L., and Li, M. Plasma homocysteine, serum folic acid, serum vitamin B12, serum vitamin B6, MTHFR and risk of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Graefes Arch.Clin Exp.Ophthalmol. 2012;250(7):1067-1074.

Fruzzetti, F. Beyaz(R): an oral contraceptive fortified with folate. Womens Health (Lond Engl.) 2012;8(1):13-19.

Zhao, Z., Pelletier, E., Barber, B., Bhosle, M., Wang, S., Gao, S., and Klingman, D. Patterns of treatment with chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies for metastatic colorectal cancer in Western Europe. Curr Med.Res Opin. 2012;28(2):221-229.

Qin, X., Xu, M., Zhang, Y., Li, J., Xu, X., Wang, X., Xu, X., and Huo, Y. Effect of folic acid supplementation on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis 2012;222(2):307-313.

Ford, A. H. and Almeida, O. P. Effect of homocysteine lowering treatment on cognitive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J.Alzheimers.Dis. 2012;29(1):133-149.

Pan, Y., Guo, L. L., Cai, L. L., Zhu, X. J., Shu, J. L., Liu, X. L., and Jin, H. M. Homocysteine-lowering therapy does not lead to reduction in cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients: a meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. Br.J.Nutr. 2012;108(3):400-407.

Lin, R. J., Krall, R., Westerberg, B. D., Chadha, N. K., and Chau, J. K. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adults. Laryngoscope 2012;122(3):624-635.

Marik, P. E. and Flemmer, M. Do dietary supplements have beneficial health effects in industrialized nations: what is the evidence? JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2012;36(2):159-168.

Clarke, R., Bennett, D. A., Parish, S., Verhoef, P., Dotsch-Klerk, M., Lathrop, M., Xu, P., Nordestgaard, B. G., Holm, H., Hopewell, J. C., Saleheen, D., Tanaka, T., Anand, S. S., Chambers, J. C., Kleber, M. E., Ouwehand, W. H., Yamada, Y., Elbers, C., Peters, B., Stewart, A. F., Reilly, M. M., Thorand, B., Yusuf, S., Engert, J. C., Assimes, T. L., Kooner, J., Danesh, J., Watkins, H., Samani, N. J., Collins, R., and Peto, R. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of MTHFR case-control studies, avoiding publication bias. PLoS.Med. 2012;9(2):e1001177.

Perez, L., Heim, L., Sherzai, A., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., and Sherzai, A. Nutrition and vascular dementia. J.Nutr.Health Aging 2012;16(4):319-324.

Mayne, S. T., Ferrucci, L. M., and Cartmel, B. Lessons learned from randomized clinical trials of micronutrient supplementation for cancer prevention. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 8-21-2012;32:369-390.

Castillo-Lancellotti, C., Tur Mari, J. A., and Uauy, Dagach R. [Folic acid supplementation and colorrectal adenoma recurrence: systematic review]. Nutr.Hosp. 2012;27(1):13-21.

Castillo, Lancellotti C., Tur Mari, J. A., and Uauy, Dagach R. [Effect of folate and related nutrients on cognitive function in older people; systematic review]. Nutr.Hosp. 2012;27(1):90-102.

Lohner, S., Fekete, K., Berti, C., Hermoso, M., Cetin, I., Koletzko, B., and Decsi, T. Effect of folate supplementation on folate status and health outcomes in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2012;63(8):1014-1020.

Huo, Y., Qin, X., Wang, J., Sun, N., Zeng, Q., Xu, X., Liu, L., Xu, X., and Wang, X. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: new insight from a meta-analysis. Int.J.Clin Pract. 2012;66(6):544-551.

Wu, C. C., Zheng, C. M., Lin, Y. F., Lo, L., Liao, M. T., and Lu, K. C. Role of homocysteine in end-stage renal disease. Clin Biochem. 2012;45(16-17):1286-1294.

Jardine, M. J., Kang, A., Zoungas, S., Navaneethan, S. D., Ninomiya, T., Nigwekar, S. U., Gallagher, M. P., Cass, A., Strippoli, G., and Perkovic, V. The effect of folic acid based homocysteine lowering on cardiovascular events in people with kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;344:e3533.

Sudchada, P., Saokaew, S., Sridetch, S., Incampa, S., Jaiyen, S., and Khaithong, W. Effect of folic acid supplementation on plasma total homocysteine levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98(1):151-158.

Castillo, L., Tur, J. A., and Uauy, R. [Folate and breast cancer risk: a systematic review]. Rev.Med.Chil. 2012;140(2):251-260.

Bhutta, Z. A., Imdad, A., Ramakrishnan, U., and Martorell, R. Is it time to replace iron folate supplements in pregnancy with multiple micronutrients? Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2012;26 Suppl 1:27-35.

Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F. K., Goldenberg, T., Bui, V., Imdad, A., and Bhutta, Z. A. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on pregnancy and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2012;26 Suppl 1:153-167.

Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., and Martorell, R. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2012;26 Suppl 1:285-301.

Zhou, K., Zhao, R., Geng, Z., Jiang, L., Cao, Y., Xu, D., Liu, Y., Huang, L., and Zhou, J. Association between B-group vitamins and venous thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. J.Thromb.Thrombolysis. 2012;34(4):459-467.

Papakostas, G. I., Cassiello, C. F., and Iovieno, N. Folates and S-adenosylmethionine for major depressive disorder. Can.J.Psychiatry 2012;57(7):406-413.

Skorka, A., Gieruszczak-Bialek, D., Piescik, M., and Szajewska, H. Effects of prenatal and/or postnatal (maternal and/or child) folic acid supplementation on the mental performance of children. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 2012;52(11):959-964.

Morse, N. L. Benefits of docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, vitamin D and iodine on foetal and infant brain development and function following maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrients. 2012;4(7):799-840.

Yang, H. T., Lee, M., Hong, K. S., Ovbiagele, B., and Saver, J. L. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in cardiovascular disease prevention: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur.J.Intern.Med. 2012;23(8):745-754.

Vargas, A. J. and Thompson, P. A. Diet and nutrient factors in colorectal cancer risk. Nutr.Clin Pract. 2012;27(5):613-623.

Xu, F., Zhao, X., Zeng, S. M., Li, L., Zhong, H. B., and Li, M. Homocysteine, B vitamins, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2012;119(12):2493-2499.

Fekete, K., Berti, C., Trovato, M., Lohner, S., Dullemeijer, C., Souverein, O. W., Cetin, I., and Decsi, T. Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. Nutr.J. 2012;11:75.

Chuang, V. T. and Suno, M. Levoleucovorin as replacement for leucovorin in cancer treatment. Ann.Pharmacother. 2012;46(10):1349-1357.

Haider, B. A. and Bhutta, Z. A. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;11:CD004905.

Pena-Rosas, J. P., De-Regil, L. M., Dowswell, T., and Viteri, F. E. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;12:CD004736.

Coull, B. M., Malinow, M. R., Beamer, N., Sexton, G., Nordt, F., and de, Garmo P. Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration as a possible independent risk factor for stroke. Stroke 1990;21(4):572-576.

Vergel, R. G., Sanchez, L. R., Heredero, B. L., Rodriguez, P. L., and Martinez, A. J. Primary prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation: Cuban experience. Prenat.Diagn. 1990;10(3):149-152.

Brattstrom, L., Israelsson, B., Norrving, B., Bergqvist, D., Thorne, J., Hultberg, B., and Hamfelt, A. Impaired homocysteine metabolism in early-onset cerebral and peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Effects of pyridoxine and folic acid treatment. Atherosclerosis 1990;81(1):51-60.

Fuller, N. J., Bates, C. J., Hayes, R. J., Bradley, A. K., Greenwood, A. M., Tulloch, S., and Greenwood, B. M. The effects of antimalarials and folate supplements on haematological indices and red cell folate levels in Gambian children. Ann.Trop.Paediatr. 1988;8(2):61-67.

Milunsky, A., Jick, H., Jick, S. S., Bruell, C. L., MacLaughlin, D. S., Rothman, K. J., and Willett, W. Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. JAMA 11-24-1989;262(20):2847-2852.

Mahomed, K., James, D. K., Golding, J., and McCabe, R. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ 9-30-1989;299(6703):826-830.

Araki, A., Sako, Y., Fukushima, Y., Matsumoto, M., Asada, T., and Kita, T. Plasma sulfhydryl-containing amino acids in patients with cerebral infarction and in hypertensive subjects. Atherosclerosis 1989;79(2-3):139-146.

Sibai, B. M., Villar, M. A., and Bray, E. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 1989;161(1):115-119.

Foged, N., Lillquist, K., Rolschau, J., and Blaabjerg, O. Effect of folic acid supplementation on small-for-gestational-age infants born at term. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1989;149(1):65-67.

Lira, P., Barrena, N., Foradori, A., Gormaz, G., and Grebe, G. [Deficiency of folates in pregnancy: effect of supplementary folic acid]. Sangre (Barc.) 1989;34(1):24-27.

Backman, N., Holm, A. K., Hanstrom, L., Blomquist, H. K., Heijbel, J., and Safstrom, G. Folate treatment of diphenylhydantoin-induced gingival hyperplasia. Scand J Dent Res 1989;97(3):222-232.

Coppen, A., Chaudhry, S., and Swade, C. Folic acid enhances lithium prophylaxis. J.Affect.Disord. 1986;10(1):9-13.

Charoenlarp, P., Dhanamitta, S., Kaewvichit, R., Silprasert, A., Suwanaradd, C., Na-Nakorn, S., Prawatmuang, P., Vatanavicharn, S., Nutcharas, U., Pootrakul, P., and . A WHO collaborative study on iron supplementation in Burma and in Thailand. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;47(2):280-297.

Hanrahan, P. S. and Russell, A. S. Concurrent use of folinic acid and methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988;15(7):1078-1080.

Hagerman, R. J., Murphy, M. A., and Wittenberger, M. D. A controlled trial of stimulant medication in children with the fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1988;30(1-2):377-392.

Peto, R., Gray, R., Collins, R., Wheatley, K., Hennekens, C., Jamrozik, K., Warlow, C., Hafner, B., Thompson, E., Norton, S., and . Randomised trial of prophylactic daily aspirin in British male doctors. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1-30-1988;296(6618):313-316.

Mardones-Santander, F., Rosso, P., Stekel, A., Ahumada, E., Llaguno, S., Pizarro, F., Salinas, J., Vial, I., and Walter, T. Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47(3):413-419.

Erlichman, C., Fine, S., Wong, A., and Elhakim, T. A randomized trial of fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1988;6(3):469-475.

Heimburger, D. C., Alexander, C. B., Birch, R., Butterworth, C. E., Jr., Bailey, W. C., and Krumdieck, C. L. Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B12. Report of a preliminary randomized, double-blind intervention trial. JAMA 3-11-1988;259(10):1525-1530.

Spatling, L. and Spatling, G. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. A double-blind study. Br J Obstet.Gynaecol. 1988;95(2):120-125.

Froster-Iskenius, U., Bodeker, K., Oepen, T., Matthes, R., Piper, U., and Schwinger, E. Folic acid treatment in males and females with fragile-(X)-syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1986;23(1-2):273-289.

Madison, L. S., Wells, T. E., Fristo, T. E., and Benesch, C. G. A controlled study of folic acid treatment in three fragile X syndrome males. J Dev.Behav.Pediatr 1986;7(4):253-256.

Fleming, A. F., Ghatoura, G. B., Harrison, K. A., Briggs, N. D., and Dunn, D. T. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1986;80(2):211-233.

Boers, G. H., Smals, A. G., Trijbels, F. J., Fowler, B., Bakkeren, J. A., Schoonderwaldt, H. C., Kleijer, W. J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. Heterozygosity for homocystinuria in premature peripheral and cerebral occlusive arterial disease. N.Engl.J Med 9-19-1985;313(12):709-715.

Harrison, K. A. Child-bearing, health and social priorities: a survey of 22 774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Br J Obstet.Gynaecol. 1985;92 Suppl 5:1-119.

Horwitz, S. J., Klipstein, F. A., and Lovelace, R. E. Relation of abnormal folate metabolism to neuropathy developing during anticonvulsant drug therapy. Lancet 3-16-1968;1(7542):563-565.

Ralston, A. J., Snaith, R. P., and Hinley, J. B. Effects of folic acid on fit-frequency and behaviour in epileptics on anticonvulsants. Lancet 4-25-1970;1(7652):867-868.

Fleming, A. F., Martin, J. D., Hahnel, R., and Westlake, A. J. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Med.J.Aust. 9-21-1974;2(12):429-436.

Basu, R. N., Sood, S. K., Ramachandran, K., Mathur, M., and Ramalingaswami, V. Etiopathogenesis of nutritional anemia in pregnancy: a therapeutic approach. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1973;26(6):591-594.

Mattson, R. H., Gallagher, B. B., Reynolds, E. H., and Glass, D. Folate therapy in epilepsy. A controlled study. Arch Neurol. 1973;29(2):78-81.

Kendall, A. C., Jones, E. E., Wilson, C. I., Shinton, N. K., and Elwood, P. C. Folic acid in low birthweight infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1974;49(9):736-738.

Christiansen, C., Rodbro, P., and Lund, M. Incidence of anticonvulsant osteomalacia and effect of vitamin D: controlled therapeutic trial. Br Med J 12-22-1973;4(5894):695-701.

Samuel, P. D., Burland, W. L., and Simpson, K. Response to oral administration of pteroylmonoglutamic acid or pteroylpolyglutamate in newborn infants of low birth weight. Br.J.Nutr. 1973;30(2):165-169.

Stevens, D., Burman, D., Strelling, M. K., and Morris, A. Folic acid supplementation in low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1979;64(3):333-335.

Jensen, O. N. and Olesen, O. V. Subnormal serum folate due to anticonvulsive therapy. A double-blind study of the effect of folic acid treatment in patients with drug-induced subnormal serum folates. Arch Neurol. 1970;22(2):181-182.

Grant, R. H. and Stores, O. P. Folic acid in folate-deficient patients with epilepsy. Br Med J 12-12-1970;4(5736):644-648.

Bowe, J. C., Cornish, E. J., and Dawson, M. Evaluation of folic acid supplements in children taking phenytoin. Dev.Med Child Neurol. 1971;13(3):343-354.

Hall, M. H. Folic acid deficiency and abruptio placentae. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Commonw. 1972;79(3):222-225.

Roberts, P. M., Arrowsmith, D. E., Lloyd, A. V., and Monk-Jones, M. E. Effect of folic acid treatment on premature infants. Arch.Dis.Child 1972;47(254):631-634.

Iyengar, L. Folic acid requirements of Indian pregnant women. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1971;111(1):13-16.

Fletcher, J., Gurr, A., Fellingham, F. R., Prankerd, T. A., Brant, H. A., and Menzies, D. N. The value of folic acid supplements in pregnancy. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Commonw. 1971;78(9):781-785.

Burland, W. L., Simpson, K., and Lord, J. Response of low birthweight infant to treatment with folic acid. Arch.Dis.Child 1971;46(246):189-194.

Shaw, D. M., Macsweeney, D. A., Johnson, A. L., O'Keeffe, R., Naidoo, D., Macleod, D. M., Jog, S., Preece, J. M., and Crowley, J. M. Folate and amine metabolites in senile dementia: a combined trial and biochemical study. Psychol.Med 1971;1(2):166-171.

Matoth, Y., Zehavi, I., Topper, E., and Klein, T. Folate nutrition and growth in infancy. Arch.Dis.Child 1979;54(9):699-702.

Rolschau, J., Date, J., and Kristoffersen, K. Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand. 1979;58(4):343-346.

Kral, V. A., Solyom, L., Enesco, H., and Ledwidge, B. Relationship of vitamin B12 and folic acid to memory function. Biol.Psychiatry 1970;2(1):19-26.

Iyengar, L. and Apte, S. V. Prophylaxis of anemia in pregnancy. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1970;23(6):725-730.

Baumslag, N., Edelstein, T., and Metz, J. Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. Br.Med.J. 1-3-1970;1(5687):16-17.

Osifo, B. O. The effect of folic acid and iron in the prevention of nutritional anaemias in pregnancy in Nigeria. Br J Nutr 1970;24(3):689-694.

Gandy, G. and Jacobson, W. Influence of folic acid on birthweight and growth of the erythroblastotic infant. III. Effect of folic acid supplementation. Arch.Dis.Child 1977;52(1):16-21.

Fleming, A. F., Hendrickse, J. P., and Allan, N. C. The prevention of megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy in Nigeria. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Commonw. 1968;75(4):425-432.

Asfour, R., Wahbeh, N., Waslien, C. I., Guindi, S., and Darby, W. J. Folacin requirement of children. III. Normal infants. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 1977;30(7):1098-1105.

Smithells, R. W., Sheppard, S., Schorah, C. J., Seller, M. J., Nevin, N. C., Harris, R., Read, A. P., and Fielding, D. W. Possible prevention of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Lancet 2-16-1980;1(8164):339-340.

Smithells, R. W., Nevin, N. C., Seller, M. J., Sheppard, S., Harris, R., Read, A. P., Fielding, D. W., Walker, S., Schorah, C. J., and Wild, J. Further experience of vitamin supplementation for prevention of neural tube defect recurrences. Lancet 5-7-1983;1(8332):1027-1031.

Ek, J., Behncke, L., Halvorsen, K. S., and Magnus, E. Plasma and red cell folate values and folate requirements in formula-fed premature infants. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1984;142(2):78-82.

Seller, M. J. and Nevin, N. C. Periconceptional vitamin supplementation and the prevention of neural tube defects in south-east England and Northern Ireland. J Med Genet. 1984;21(5):325-330.

Brattstrom, L. E., Hardebo, J. E., and Hultberg, B. L. Moderate homocysteinemia--a possible risk factor for arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1984;15(6):1012-1016.

Srisupandit, S., Pootrakul, P., Areekul, S., Neungton, S., Mokkaves, J., Kiriwat, O., and Kanokpongsukdi, S. A prophylactic supplementation of iron and folate in pregnancy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1983;14(3):317-323.

Brown, W. T., Jenkins, E. C., Friedman, E., Brooks, J., Cohen, I. L., Duncan, C., Hill, A. L., Malik, M. N., Morris, V., Wolf, E., and . Folic acid therapy in the fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1984;17(1):289-297.

Smithells, R. W. Can vitamins prevent neural tube defects? Can.Med Assoc J 8-15-1984;131(4):273-4, 276.

Laurence, K. M., James, N., Miller, M. H., Tennant, G. B., and Campbell, H. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural-tube defects. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 5-9-1981;282(6275):1509-1511.

Hunt, I. F., Murphy, N. J., Cleaver, A. E., Faraji, B., Swendseid, M. E., Coulson, A. H., Clark, V. A., Laine, N., Davis, C. A., and Smith, J. C., Jr. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: zinc concentration of serum and hair from low-income women of Mexican descent. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37(4):572-582.

Rush, D., Stein, Z., and Susser, M. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 1980;65(4):683-697.

Areekul, S., Subcharoen, A., Cheeramakara, C., Srisukawat, K., and Limsuwan, S. Studies on the effect of folic acid supplement on folate and vitamin B12 status in children. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med Public Health 1980;11(1):81-86.

Gibberd, F. B., Nicholls, A., and Wright, M. G. The influence of folic acid on the frequency of epileptic attacks. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;19(1):57-60.

Thomson, M. E. and Pack, A. R. Effects of extended systemic and topical folate supplementation on gingivitis of pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol. 1982;9(3):275-280.

Jackson, R. T. and Latham, M. C. Anemia of pregnancy in Liberia, West Africa: a therapeutic trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1982;35(4):710-714.

Tchernia, G., Blot, I., Rey, A., Kaltwasser, J. P., Zittoun, J., and Papiernik, E. Maternal folate status, birthweight and gestational age. Dev.Pharmacol.Ther 1982;4 Suppl:58-65.

Blot, I., Papiernik, E., Kaltwasser, J. P., Werner, E., and Tchernia, G. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecol.Obstet.Invest 1981;12(6):294-304.

Smithells, R. W., Sheppard, S., Schorah, C. J., Seller, M. J., Nevin, N. C., Harris, R., Read, A. P., and Fielding, D. W. Apparent prevention of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Arch.Dis.Child 1981;56(12):911-918.

Davis, B. A., Bailey, L. B., Gregory, J. F., III, Toth, J. P., Dean, J., and Stevenson, R. E. Folic acid absorption in women with a history of pregnancy with neural tube defect. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(4):782-784.

Naurath, H. J., Joosten, E., Riezler, R., Stabler, S. P., Allen, R. H., and Lindenbaum, J. Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin concentrations. Lancet 7-8-1995;346(8967):85-89.

Shaw, G. M., Schaffer, D., Velie, E. M., Morland, K., and Harris, J. A. Periconceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects. Epidemiology 1995;6(3):219-226.

Ladenheim, J., Garcia, G., Titzer, D., Herzenberg, H., Lavori, P., Edson, R., and Omary, M. B. Effect of sulindac on sporadic colonic polyps. Gastroenterology 1995;108(4):1083-1087.

Beca, J. P. and Saieh, C. [Folic acid suplement. Prevention of anemia in premature infants?]. Rev.Chil.Pediatr. 1975;46(4):347-350.

Ubbink, J. B., Vermaak, W. J., van der Merwe, A., Becker, P. J., Delport, R., and Potgieter, H. C. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124(10):1927-1933.

Czeizel, A. E., Dudas, I., and Metneki, J. Pregnancy outcomes in a randomised controlled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Final report. Arch Gynecol.Obstet 1994;255(3):131-139.

Worthington-White, D. A., Behnke, M., and Gross, S. Premature infants require additional folate and vitamin B-12 to reduce the severity of the anemia of prematurity. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1994;60(6):930-935.

van den Berg, M., Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., Jakobs, C., Stehouwer, C. D., and Rauwerda, J. A. Combined vitamin B6 plus folic acid therapy in young patients with arteriosclerosis and hyperhomocysteinemia. J Vasc.Surg. 1994;20(6):933-940.

Paspatis, G. A. and Karamanolis, D. G. Folate supplementation and adenomatous colonic polyps. Dis.Colon Rectum 1994;37(12):1340-1341.

Alfthan, G., Pekkanen, J., Jauhiainen, M., Pitkaniemi, J., Karvonen, M., Tuomilehto, J., Salonen, J. T., and Ehnholm, C. Relation of serum homocysteine and lipoprotein(a) concentrations to atherosclerotic disease in a prospective Finnish population based study. Atherosclerosis 1994;106(1):9-19.

Jacob, R. A., Wu, M. M., Henning, S. M., and Swendseid, M. E. Homocysteine increases as folate decreases in plasma of healthy men during short-term dietary folate and methyl group restriction. J Nutr 1994;124(7):1072-1080.

Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., and Trijbels, J. M. Effect of various regimens of vitamin B6 and folic acid on mild hyperhomocysteinaemia in vascular patients. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1994;17(1):159-162.

Verhoef, P., Hennekens, C. H., Malinow, M. R., Kok, F. J., Willett, W. C., and Stampfer, M. J. A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke 1994;25(10):1924-1930.

Franken, D. G., Boers, G. H., Blom, H. J., Trijbels, F. J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vascular disease patients. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1994;14(3):465-470.

Ubbink, J. B., van der Merwe, A., Vermaak, W. J., and Delport, R. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the response to vitamin supplementation. Clin.Investig. 1993;71(12):993-998.

Nugent, K. P., Farmer, K. C., Spigelman, A. D., Williams, C. B., and Phillips, R. K. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of sulindac on duodenal and rectal polyposis and cell proliferation in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Br J Surg 1993;80(12):1618-1619.

Gann, P. H., Manson, J. E., Glynn, R. J., Buring, J. E., and Hennekens, C. H. Low-dose aspirin and incidence of colorectal tumors in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 8-4-1993;85(15):1220-1224.

Weinblatt, M. E., Maier, A. L., and Coblyn, J. S. Low dose leucovorin does not interfere with the efficacy of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: an 8 week randomized placebo controlled trial. J Rheumatol 1993;20(6):950-952.

Dudman, N. P., Wilcken, D. E., Wang, J., Lynch, J. F., Macey, D., and Lundberg, P. Disordered methionine/homocysteine metabolism in premature vascular disease. Its occurrence, cofactor therapy, and enzymology. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1993;13(9):1253-1260.

Giardiello, F. M., Hamilton, S. R., Krush, A. J., Piantadosi, S., Hylind, L. M., Celano, P., Booker, S. V., Robinson, C. R., and Offerhaus, G. J. Treatment of colonic and rectal adenomas with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis. N.Engl.J Med 5-6-1993;328(18):1313-1316.

Wald, N. J., Hackshaw, A. D., Stone, R., and Sourial, N. A. Blood folic acid and vitamin B12 in relation to neural tube defects. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996;103(4):319-324.

Mark, S. D., Wang, W., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., Li, J. Y., Taylor, P. R., Wang, G. Q., Guo, W., Dawsey, S. M., Li, B., and Blot, W. J. Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. Am.J.Epidemiol. 4-1-1996;143(7):658-664.

Bostom, A. G., Shemin, D., Lapane, K. L., Hume, A. L., Yoburn, D., Nadeau, M. R., Bendich, A., Selhub, J., and Rosenberg, I. H. High dose-B-vitamin treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1996;49(1):147-152.

Guttormsen, A. B., Ueland, P. M., Nesthus, I., Nygard, O., Schneede, J., Vollset, S. E., and Refsum, H. Determinants and vitamin responsiveness of intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (> or = 40 micromol/liter). The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. J Clin.Invest 11-1-1996;98(9):2174-2183.

Jonsson, B., Hauge, B., Larsen, M. F., and Hald, F. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand 1996;75(8):725-729.

Tucker, K. L., Mahnken, B., Wilson, P. W., Jacques, P., and Selhub, J. Folic acid fortification of the food supply. Potential benefits and risks for the elderly population. JAMA 12-18-1996;276(23):1879-1885.

Stites, T. E., Bailey, L. B., Scott, K. C., Toth, J. P., Fisher, W. P., and Gregory, J. F., III. Kinetic modeling of folate metabolism through use of chronic administration of deuterium-labeled folic acid in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(1):53-60.

Yehuda, S., Rabinovtz, S., Carasso, R. L., and Mostofsky, D. I. Essential fatty acids preparation (SR-3) improves Alzheimer's patients quality of life. Int J Neurosci. 1996;87(3-4):141-149.

Ponz de, Leon M. and Roncucci, L. Chemoprevention of colorectal tumors: role of lactulose and of other agents. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1997;222:72-75.

Wilcken, D. E. and Wilcken, B. The natural history of vascular disease in homocystinuria and the effects of treatment. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1997;20(2):295-300.

Ward, M., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J., Strain, J. J., Weir, D. G., and Scott, J. M. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. QJM. 1997;90(8):519-524.

Peterson, J. C. and Spence, J. D. Vitamins and progression of atherosclerosis in hyper-homocyst(e)inaemia. Lancet 1-24-1998;351(9098):263.

Malinow, M. R., Duell, P. B., Hess, D. L., Anderson, P. H., Kruger, W. D., Phillipson, B. E., Gluckman, R. A., Block, P. C., and Upson, B. M. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N.Engl.J Med 4-9-1998;338(15):1009-1015.

Herrera, J. A., Arevalo-Herrera, M., and Herrera, S. Prevention of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 1998;91(4):585-590.

Dierkes, J., Kroesen, M., and Pietrzik, K. Folic acid and Vitamin B6 supplementation and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1998;68(2):98-103.

Disorders of homocysteine metabolism: from rare genetic defects to common risk factors. Proceedings of an international symposium. Fulda, Germany, 20-22 November 1996. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1998;157 Suppl 2:S39-142.

Schorah, C. J., Devitt, H., Lucock, M., and Dowell, A. C. The responsiveness of plasma homocysteine to small increases in dietary folic acid: a primary care study. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 1998;52(6):407-411.

Kwok, T., Tang, C., Woo, J., Lai, W. K., Law, L. K., and Pang, C. P. Randomized trial of the effect of supplementation on the cognitive function of older people with subnormal cobalamin levels. Int J Geriatr.Psychiatry 1998;13(9):611-616.

Clarke, R. and Collins, R. Can dietary supplements with folic acid or vitamin B6 reduce cardiovascular risk? Design of clinical trials to test the homocysteine hypothesis of vascular disease. J Cardiovasc.Risk 1998;5(4):249-255.

Mackey, A. D. and Picciano, M. F. Maternal folate status during extended lactation and the effect of supplemental folic acid. Am.J Clin.Nutr 1999;69(2):285-292.

Dierkes J. Vitamin requirements for the reduction of homocysteine blood levels in healthy young women [dissertation]. Bonn: University of Bonn. 1995;

Saltzman E, Mason JB, and Jacques PF. B-vitamin supplementation lowers homocysteine levels in heart disease. Clin Res 1994;42:172A.

Cuskelly G, McNulty W, McPartlin J, Strain JJ, and Scott JM. Plasma homocysteine response to folate intervention in young women. Ir JMedSci 1995;164:3.

Bronstrup A. Effects of single and combined B-vitamin supplementation on homocysteine concentrations in different population groups. Doctoral dissertation. University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. 1998;

Woodside JV, Yarnell JWG, Young IS, McCrum EE, Patterson CC, and Gey F. The effects of oral vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. Roc Nutr Soc 1997;56:149.

Graham I. Interactions between homocysteinaemia and conventional risk factors in vascular disease. Eur Heart J 1994;15(suppl):530.

Daly L and Graham I. Hyperhomocysteinaemia: a powerful risk factor for vascular disease. Presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting Working Group/ Epidemiology and Prevention of the European Society of Cardiology; Venice, Italy. 4-25-1994;

Holmes-Siedle M, Lindenbaum RH, and Galliard A. Vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects. Lancet 1982;1:275-276.

Dean JH, Collins JS, and Clary NJ. Preventing the recurrence of neural tube defects in South Carolina. Proc Greenwood Genet Center 2007;26:40-44.

Baker F, Picton D, and Blackwood S. Blinded comparison of folic acid and placebo in patients with ischemic heart disease: an outcome trial. Circulation 2002;(106):741S.

Levi, F., Pasche, C., Lucchini, F., and La Vecchia, C. Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2001;91(2):260-263.

Marta E, øyvind B, and Per MU. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-liowering B vitamins after coronary angiography. JAMA 2008;300:795-804.

Collins R. Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine): randomized comparison of folic acid 2 mg plus vitamin B12 1mg daily versus placebo for 7 years in 12,064 myocardial infarction survivors. Presented at a meeting of the American Heart Association, late breaking trials; New Orleans. 11-9-2008;

Obeid R, FinkGeisel U, Eckert R, and Herrmann W. Effect of the Bvitamins on cognitive function in elderly people with mild cognitive dysfunction. Clin Chem Lab Med 2005;43:A28.

Nogueira, N. D., Macedo, A. D., Parente, J. V., and Cozzolino, S. Nutritional profile of newborns of adolescent mothers supplemented with iron, in different concentrations, zinc and pholic acid. Brazilian Journal of Nutrition 2002;15(2):193-200.

Arikan G, Panzitt T, Gaucer F, Boritsch J, Trojovski A, and Haeusler MCH. Oral magnesium supplementation and the prevention of preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;76:S45.

Mora JO, de Navarro L, Clement J, Wagner M, de Paredes B, and Herrera MG. The effect of nutritional supplementation on calorie and protein intake of pregnant women. Nutr Rep Intl 1978;17:217-228.

Carpenter NJ, Barber DH, Jones M, Lindley W, and Carr C. Controlled six-month study of oral folic acid therapy in boys with fragile X-linked mental retardation. Am J Med Genet 1983;35(243):82A.

Zhu S, Mason J, and Yaol S. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers. Chin Med J 2003;116:15-19.

Cole B, Baron J, and Sandler R. A randomized trial of folic acid to prevent colorectal adenomas. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res Annu Meet 2005;46:4399.

Zhu S, Mason J, and Shi Y. The interventional effect of folic acid on the development of gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers - Clinical trial and follow- up for seven years. Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology 2002;7:73-78.

Burn J, Chapman PD, Bishop DT, Dixon R, Turner F, and Coaker J. Results of the CAPP1 Study: aspirin and resistant starch are beneficial in familial adenomatous polyposis. Am J Hum Genet 2003;73

Palmieri Y. Reduction of the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel by means of antioxidants. Brussels: Se-Te Press. 1998;

Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Sola, I., Lathyris, D., Karakitsiou, D. E., and Simancas-Racines, D. Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2013;1:CD006612.

Ruscica M, Gomaraschi M, Mombelli G, Macchi C, Bosisio R, Pazzucconi F, Pavanello C, Calabresi L, Arnoldi A, Sirtori CR, Magni P. Nutraceutical approach to moderate cardiometabolic risk: results of a randomized, double-blind and crossover study with Armolipid Plus. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8(1):61-8.

Azizollahi G, Azizollahi S, Babaei H, Kianinejad M, Baneshi MR, Nematollahi-mahani SN. Effects of supplement therapy on sperm parameters, protamine content and acrosomal integrity of varicocelectomized subjects. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013;30(4):593-9.

Douaud G, Refsum H, de Jager CA, et al. Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110(23):9523-8.

Fonseca VA, Lavery LA, Thethi TK, et al. Metanx in type 2 diabetes with peripheral neuropathy: A randomized trial. Am J Med 2013;126(2):141-9.

Gommans J, Yi Q, Eikelboom JW, et al. The effect of homocysteine-lowering and B-vitamins on osteoporotic fractures in patients with cerebrovascular disease: Substudy of VITATOPS, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BMC Geriatr 2013;13:88.

Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW, Yi Q, et al. Treatment with B vitamins and incidence of cancer in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: Results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke 2012;43(6):1572-7.

Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW, Yi Q, et al. Antiplatelet therapy and the effects of B vitamins in patients with previous stroke and transient ischemic attack: A post-hoc subanalysis of VITATOPS, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2012;11(6):512-20.

Negrao L, Almeida P, Alcino S, et al. Effect of the combination of uridine nucleotides, folic acid and vitamin B12 on the clinical expression of peripheral neuropathies. Pain Manag 2014;4(3):191-6.

Roffman JL, Lamberti JS, Achtyes E, et al. Randomized multicenter investigation of folate plus vitamin B12 supplementation in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(5):481-9.

Song Y, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. Effect of combined folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) on colorectal adenoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104(20):1562-75.

Taneja S, Strand TA, Kumar T, et al. Folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation and common infections in 6-30-mo-old children in India: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98(3):731-7.

van der Zwaluw NL, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Wijngaarden JP, et al. Results of a 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance: secondary data from an RCT. Neurology 2014;83(23):2158-66.

van Wijngaarden JP, Swart KM, Enneman AW, et al. Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100(6):1578-86.

Zhou K, Zhao R, Geng Z, et al. Association between B-group vitamins and venous thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2012;34(4):459-67.

Tabei SM, Mazloom M, Shahriari M, Zareifar S, Azimi A, Hadaegh A, Karimi M. Determining and surveying the role of carnitine and folic acid to decrease fatigue in ß-thalassemia minor subjects. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Nov;30(8):742-7.

Chen P, Li C, Li X, Li J, Chu R, Wang H. Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014 29;110(9):2327-38.

Qin X, Fan F, Cui Y, Chen F, Chen Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Wang B, Xu X, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X. Folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B6 and revascularization risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(4):603-12.

Crider KS, Cordero AM, Qi YP, Mulinare J, Dowling NF, Berry RJ. Prenatal folic acid and risk of asthma in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(5):1272-81.

Shalita AR, Falcon R, Olansky A, Iannotta P, Akhavan A, Day D, Janiga A, Singri P, Kallal JE. Inflammatory acne management with a novel prescription dietary supplement. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(12):1428-33.

Galeone C, Edefonti V, Parpinel M, Leoncini E, Matsuo K, Talamini R, Olshan AF, Zevallos JP, Winn DM, Jayaprakash V, Moysich K, Zhang ZF, Morgenstern H, Levi F, Bosetti C, Kelsey K, McClean M, Schantz S, Yu GP, Boffetta P, Lee YC, Hashibe M, La Vecchia C, Boccia S. Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: a pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Int J Cancer. 2015 15;136(4):904-14.

Gao QY, Chen HM, Chen YX, Wang YC, Wang ZH, Tang JT, Ge ZZ, Chen XY, Sheng JQ, Fang DC, Yu CG, Zheng P, Fang JY. Folic acid prevents the initial occurrence of sporadic colorectal adenoma in Chinese older than 50 years of age: a randomized clinical trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6(7):744-52.

Hodgetts VA, Morris RK, Francis A, Gardosi J, Ismail KM. Effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on reducing the risk of small-for-gestational age neonates: a population study, systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2015;122(4):478-90.

Javanbakht AM, Pour HM, Tarrahic MJ. Effects of oral isotretinoin on serum folic acid levels. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11(9):e23-4.

Stevens VL, McCullough ML, Sun J, Jacobs EJ, Campbell PT, Gapstur SM. High levels of folate from supplements and fortification are not associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(1):98-105, 105.e1.

Lassi ZS, Salam RA, Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 28;3:CD006896.

Li Z, Ye R, Zhang L, Li H, Liu J, Ren A. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2013;61(4):873-9.

Matsubara S, Imai K, Murayama K, Higashizawa T. Severe liver dysfunction during nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: folic acid supplement as a suggested culprit. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32(7):701-2.

Qin X, Huo Y, Xie D, Hou F, Xu X, Wang X. Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid is effective in cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(5):722-7.

Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X. Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cancer. 2013 1;133(5):1033-41.

Sharpley AL, Hockney R, McPeake L, Geddes JR, Cowen PJ. Folic acid supplementation for prevention of mood disorders in young people at familial risk: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2014;167:306-11.

Shiraishi M, Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Ota E, Murayama R, Murashima S. Association between the serum folate levels and tea consumption during pregnancy. Biosci Trends. 2010;4(5):225-30.

Tio M, Andrici J, Cox MR, Eslick GD. Folate intake and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2014;17(3):213-9.

Tomaszewski JJ, Richman EL, Sadetsky N, O'Keefe DS, Carroll PR, Davies BJ, Chan JM. Impact of folate intake on prostate cancer recurrence following definitive therapy: data from CaPSURE™. J Urol. 2014;191(4):971-6.

Valera-Gran D, García de la Hera M, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Fernandez-Somoano A, Tardón A, Julvez J, Forns J, Lertxundi N, Ibarluzea JM, Murcia M, Rebagliato M, Vioque J; Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(11):e142611.

Van Der Woude DA, De Vries J, Van Wijk EM, Verzijl JM, Pijnenborg JM. A randomized controlled trial examining the addition of folic acid to iron supplementation in the treatment of postpartum anemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014;126(2):101-5.

Vila-Nova C, Wehby GL, Queirós FC, Chakraborty H, Félix TM, Goco N, Moore J, Gewehr EV, Lins L, Affonso CM, Murray JC. Periconceptional use of folic acid and risk of miscarriage - findings of the Oral Cleft Prevention Program in Brazil. J Perinat Med. 2013;41(4):461-6.

Vollset SE, Clarke R, Lewington S, Ebbing M, Halsey J, Lonn E, Armitage J, Manson JE, Hankey GJ, Spence JD, Galan P, Bønaa KH, Jamison R, Gaziano JM, Guarino P, Baron JA, Logan RF, Giovannucci EL, den Heijer M, Ueland PM, Bennett D, Collins R, Peto R; B-Vitamin Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of folic acid supplementation on overall and site-specific cancer incidence during the randomised trials: meta-analyses of data on 50,000 individuals. Lancet. 2013 23;381(9871):1029-36.

Wehby GL, Félix TM, Goco N, Richieri-Costa A, Chakraborty H, Souza J, Pereira R, Padovani C, Moretti-Ferreira D, Murray JC. High dosage folic acid supplementation, oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 4;10(2):590-605.

Gibson TM, Weinstein SJ, Pfeiffer RM, Hollenbeck AR, Subar AF, Schatzkin A, Mayne ST, Stolzenberg-Solomon R. Pre- and postfortification intake of folate and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(4):1053-62.

Surén P, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Haugen M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, Lie KK, Lipkin WI, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schjølberg S, Davey Smith G, Øyen AS, Susser E, Stoltenberg C. Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children. JAMA. 2013 13;309(6):570-7.

Huo Y, Li J, Qin X, Huang Y, Wang X, Gottesman RF, Tang G, Wang B, Chen D, He M, Fu J, Cai Y, Shi X, Zhang Y, Cui Y, Sun N, Li X, Cheng X, Wang J, Yang X, Yang T, Xiao C, Zhao G, Dong Q, Zhu D, Wang X, Ge J, Zhao L, Hu D, Liu L, Hou FF; CSPPT Investigators. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 7;313(13):1325-35.

Riley LE, Stark AR, Kilpatrick SJ, et al. Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 7th ed. Washington, DC: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2012.

Jenwitheesuk K, Surakunprapha P, Jenwitheesuk K, et al. Role of silicone derivative plus onion extract gel in presternal hypertrophic scar protection: a prospective randomized, double blinded, controlled trial. Int Wound J 2012;9(4):397-402.

US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017;317(2):183-189.

van Dijk SC, Enneman AW, Swart KM, et al. Effects of 2-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular outcomes within the B-PROOF trial. J Hypertens. 2015;33(9):1897-906.

Swart KM, Ham AC, van Wijngaarden JP, et al. A randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of 2-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, strength, and falling: additional findings from the B-PROOF study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;98(1):18-27.

Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in combination and age-related cataract in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2016;23(1):32-9.

Spence JD, Yi Q, Hankey GJ. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(9):750-760.

Fan C, Yu S, Zhang S, Ding X, Su J, Cheng Z. Association between folate intake and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: An overall and dose-response PRISMA meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(42):e8182.

Qin X, Li J, Spence JD, et al. Folic acid therapy reduces the first stroke risk associated with hypercholesterolemia among hypertensive patients. Stroke. 2016;47(11):2805-2812.

Xu X, Qin X, Li Y, et al; Investigators of the Renal Substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Efficacy of folic acid therapy on the progression of chronic kidney disease: The renal substudy of the China stroke primary prevention trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(10):1443-1450.

Li Y, Huang T, Zheng Y, Muka T, Troup J, Hu FB. Folic acid supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(8). pii: e003768.

Saccone G, Berghella V. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;199:76-81.

De-Regil LM, Peña-Rosas JP, Fernández-Gaxiola AC, Rayco-Solon P. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD007950.

Tian T, Yang KQ, Cui JG, Zhou LL, Zhou XL. Folic acid supplementation for stroke prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Med Sci. 2017;354(4):379-387.

Li Y, Qin X, Luo L, et al. Folic acid therapy reduces the risk of mortality associated with heavy proteinuria among hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 2017;35(6):1302-1309.

Zhao M, Wu G, Li Y, et al. Meta-analysis of folic acid efficacy trials in stroke prevention: Insight into effect modifiers. Neurology. 2017;88(19):1830-1838.

Burr NE, Hull MA, Subramanian V. Folic acid supplementation may reduce colorectal cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017;51(3):247-253.

Jenkins DJA, Spence JD, Giovannucci EL, et al. Supplemental vitamins and minerals for CVD prevention and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018;71(22):2570-84.

Bulloch RE, Lovell AL, Jordan VMB, McCowan LME, Thompson JMD, Wall CR. Maternal folic acid supplementation for the prevention of preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018;32(4):346-357.

Deopa B, Parakh M, Dara P, et al. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Seizure Control in Epileptic Children Receiving Long Term Antiepileptic Therapy. Indian J Pediatr. 2018;85(7):493-497.

Hua X, Zhang J, Guo Y, et al. Effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertension/preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2016;35(4):447-460.

Xu A, Cao X, Lu Y, et al. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects. Int Heart J. 2016;57(6):725-728.

Mottaghi T, Khorvash F, Maracy M, Bellissimo N, Askari G. Effect of folic acid supplementation on nerve conduction velocity in diabetic polyneuropathy patients. Neurol Res 2019;41(4):364-8.

Ni Y, Du J, Yin X, Lu M. Folate intake, serum folate, and risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev 2019;28(3):173-80.

Tsai TY, Kuo CY, Huang YC. Serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with vitiligo and their potential roles as disease activity biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019;80(3):646-654.e5.

Ma F, Li Q, Zhou X, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on cognitive function and Aß-related biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 2019;58(1):345-56.

Schisterman EF, Sjaarda LA, Clemons T, et al. Effect of folic acid and zinc supplementation in men on semen quality and live birth among couples undergoing infertility treatment: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2020;323(1):35-48.

Settlement Reached for Health Claim Relating B Vitamins and Vascular Disease. May 2001. Available at: Accessed on: March 20, 2020.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects. Available at: Accessed on March 30, 2020.

McNulty H, Rollins M, Cassidy T, et al. Effect of continued folic acid supplementation beyond the first trimester of pregnancy on cognitive performance in the child: a follow-up study from a randomized controlled trial (FASSTT Offspring Trial). BMC Med. 2019 Oct 31;17(1):196.

Wang Y, Jin Y, Wang Y, Li L, Liao Y, Zhang Y, Yu D. The effect of folic acid in patients with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Sep;98(37):e17095.

Fortes C, Mastroeni S, Mannooranparampil TJ, Di Lallo D. Pre-natal folic acid and iron supplementation and atopic dermatitis in the first 6 years of life. Arch Dermatol Res. 2019 Jul;311(5):361-367.

Stamp LK, O'Donnell JL, Frampton C, et al. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial of High- Versus Low-Dose Weekly Folic Acid in People With Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Methotrexate. J Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;25(7):284-287.