Van Damme EJ, Roy S, Barre A, et al. The major elderberry (Sambucus nigra) fruit protein is a lectin derived from a truncated type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Plant J 1997;12:1251-60.
Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, et al. Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama. J Altern Complement Med 1995;1:361-9.
Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I. The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines. Eur Cytokine Netw 2001;12:290-6..
Forster-Waldl E, Marchetti M, Scholl I, Focke M, et al. Type I allergy to elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is elicited by a 33.2 kDa allergen with significant homology to ribosomal inactivating proteins. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1703-10.
Wu X, Cao G, Prior RL. Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. J Nutr 2002;132:1865-71.
Cao G, Prior RL. Anthocyanins are detected in human plasma after oral administration of an elderberry extract. Clin Chem 1999;45:574-6.
Bitsch I, Janssen M, Netzel M, et al. Bioavailability of anthocyanidin-3-glycosides following consumption of elderberry extract and blackcurrant juice. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;42:293-300.
Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res 2004;32:132-40.
Elderberry (Sambucus species). The Poison Plant Patch, Novia Scotia Museum, 2007. Available at: http://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/?section=species&id=117 (Accessed 16 October 2009).
European elder. Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System. Available at: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.jump?p_null=all&p_psn=121&p_type=all&p_sci=comm&p_x=px (Accessed 16 October 2009).
Kong F. Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: efficacy in addressing influenza symptoms. Online Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics 2009;5:32-43.
Roschek B, Fink RC, McMichael MD, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry 2009;70:1255-61.
Samuels N, Saffer A, Wexler ID, et al. Localized reduction of gingival inflammation using site-specific therapy with a topical gingival patch. J.Clin.Dent. 2012;23:64-7.
Samuels N, Grbic JT, Saffer AJ, et al. Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivitis model: a pilot study. Compend.Contin.Educ.Dent. 2012;33:204-11.
Grbic J, Wexler I, Celenti R, et al. A phase II trial of a transmucosal herbal patch for the treatment of gingivitis. J Am Dent.Assoc. 2011;142:1168-75.
Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver and kidney function are not altered in postmenopausal women after ingesting an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins for 12 weeks. J Nutr 2009;139:2266-71.
Murkovic M. Abuja PM, Bergmann AR, et al. Effects of elderberry juice on fasting and postprandial serum lipids and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:244-9.
Kunitz S, Melton RJ, Updyke T, et al. Poisoning from elderberry juice. MMWR 1984;33:173-4.
No author. Leads from the MMWR. Poisoning from elderberry juice. JAMA 1984;251:2075.
Schroder-Aasen T, Molden G, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra. Phytother Res 2012;26(11):1606-13.
Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):1-8.
Tiralongo E, Wee SS, Lea RA. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 24;8(4). pii: E182.
Bagchi D, Roy S, Patel V, He G, Khanna S, Ojha N, Phillips C, Ghosh S, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jan;281(1-2):197-209.
Frank T, Janssen M, Netzet G, Christian B, Bitsch I, Netzel M. Absorption and excretion of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) anthocyanins in healthy humans. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;29(8):525-33.
Frank T, Sonntag S, Strass G, Bitsch I, Bitsch R, Netzel M. Urinary pharmacokinetics of cyanidin glycosides in healthy young men following consumption of elderberry juice. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2005;25(2):47-56.
Azadmehr A, Ziaee A, Ghanei L, Fallah Huseini H, Hajiaghaee R, Tavakoli-Far B, Kordafshari G. A Randomized Clinical Trial Study: Anti-Oxidant, Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects of Olibanum Gum in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014 Summer;13(3):1003-9.
Pathol Health Sci 2016;8(2) 59-66.
Chrubasik C, Maier T, Dawid C, et al. An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction. Phytother Res 2008;22:913-8.
Picon PD, Picon RV, Costa AF, et al. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:17.
Raus K, Pleschka S, Klein P, Schoop R, Fisher P. Effect of an echinacea-based hot drink versus oseltamivir in Influenza treatment: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, noninferiority clinical trial. . Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2015;20;77:66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2015.04.001.