Proprietary Source

The Andrographis used at Mymmunity contains 10% andrographolides

Botanical Details

Family: Acanthaceae

Genus: Andrographis

Species: A. paniculata

Immune support

A bitter Ayurvedic herb, and sometimes called “Indian Echinacea”, andrographis is used for a wide variety of indications in Ayurvedic and herbal medicine, clinical evidence of effectiveness in humans is limited to the common cold. People use andrographis for the common cold because it is thought to have immunostimulant properties. There is some preliminary evidence that it might increase antibody activity and phagocytosis by macrophages. Preliminary evidence also suggests that andrographis might have mast cell-stabilizing and antiallergy activity.

Other uses

Common cold. Taking andrographis alone or as part of an herbal combination product seems to improve cough and sore throat in some people with the common cold. Some research also shows that taking a combination product (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) containing andrographis and eleuthero improves symptoms of the common cold when started within 72 hours of feeling sick. Some symptoms can improve after 2 days of treatment, but it usually takes 4-5 days of treatment before most symptoms go away. Some research shows that this combination product relieves cold symptoms in children better than echinacea. Also, early research shows that taking an andrographis extract (KalmCold) alone might help treat colds. Other research shows that taking andrographis alone for 2 months might help prevent colds.

Osteoarthritis. Some research shows that taking andrographis extract daily seems to reduce pain and stiffness in people with mild or moderate osteoarthritis of the knee.

Infection of the throat and tonsils (tonsillopharyngitis). Some research shows that andrographis 6 grams daily works about as well as acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce fever and pain from tonsillitis.

A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Early research shows that taking andrographis extract daily for 8 weeks reduces symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease about as well as the drug mesalamine.

How it works

Andrographis might work by stimulating the immune system. It might also prevent influenza viruses from binding to cells in the body.


When taken by mouth: Andrographis is LIKELY SAFE when taken appropriately for up to 12 months. It also appears to be safe when taken as a specific combination product containing andrographis extract and eleuthero (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) for 4-7 days. Andrographis can cause side effects such as loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, headache, runny nose, and fatigue. When used in high doses, andrographis might cause swollen lymph glands, serious allergic reactions, elevations of liver enzymes, and other side effects.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Andrographis is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. There is a concern that it might cause miscarriages. There isn't enough reliable information to know if andrographis is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Andrographis is POSSIBLY SAFE in children when taken by mouth, short-term. Andrographis has been used in combination with other herbs for up to one month in children 3-15 years of age.

"Auto-immune diseases" such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other conditions: Andrographis might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, it's best to avoid using andrographis.

Bleeding conditions: Andrographis might slow blood clotting. This might increase the risk of bleeding or bruising in people with bleeding disorders.

Low blood pressure: Research suggests that andrographis might lower blood pressure. This has not been seen in humans. In theory, however, andrographis might lower pressure too much if taken by people who already have low blood pressure.

Interactions with medications

Etoricoxib (Arcoxia)

Interatction: Minor Be watchful with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Early research shows that andrographis might decrease the amount of etoricoxib in the body. It is not clear if this will impact the effects of etoricoxib.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)

Interatction: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Andrographis seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking andrographis along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)

Interatction: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Andrographis increases the immune system. By increasing the immune system, andrographis might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)

Interatction: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Talk to your health provider.

Andrographis might slow blood clotting. Taking andrographis along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Interactions with Herbs, Supplements, and Foods

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure

Andrographis might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs or supplements that might lower blood pressure could lead to blood pressure that is too low. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting

Andrographis might slow blood clotting. Using it with other herbs or supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric, and others.

There are no known interactions with foods.


McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.

Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Ethnobotanical uses: Andrographis paniculata. (Accessed 27 January 2000).

Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo study. Phytomedicine 1999;6:217-23..

Indian Herbs. Andrographis paniculata. (Accessed 23 June 2004).

Thamlikitkul V, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, et al. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adults. J Med Assoc Thai 1991;74:437-42.

Madav S, Tripathi HC, Tandan SK, et al. Antiallergic activity of andrographolide. Indian J Pharm Sci 1998;60:176-8.

Gupta PP, Tandon JS, Patnaik GK. Antiallergic activity of andrographolides isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Wall. Pharm Biol 1998;36:72-4.

Kumar S, Gopal K. Screening of plant species for inhibition of bacterial population of raw water. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 1999;34:975-87.

Madav S, Tripathi HC, Tandan Mishra SK. Analgesic, antipyretic and antiulcerogenic effects of andrographolide. Indian J Pharm Sci 1995;57:121-5.

Vedavathy S, Rao KN. Antipyretic activity of six indigenous medicinal plants of Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:193-6.

Zhang CY, Tan BK. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata in the anaesthetized rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;56:97-101.

Guo ZL, Zhao HY, Zheng XH. The effect of andrographis paniculata nees (APN) in alleviating the myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. J Tongji Med Univ 1994;14:49-51.

Guo Z, Zhao H, Fu L. Protective effects of API0134 on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Tongji Med Univ 1996;16:193-7.

Zhao HY, Fang WY. Antithrombotic effects of Andrographis paniculata nees in preventing myocardial infarction. Chin Med J (Engl) 1991;104:770-5.

Amroyan E, Gabrielian E, Panossian A, et al. Inhibitory effect of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Phytomedicine 1999;6:27-31.

Zhang C, Kuroyangi M, Tan BK. Cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide in the anaesthetised rat and isolated right atria. Pharmacol Res 1998;38:413-7.

Shukla B, Visen PK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Choleretic effect of andrographolide in rats and guinea pigs. Planta Med 1992;58:146-9.

Visen PK, Shukla B, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN. Andrographolide protects rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;40:131-6.

Rana AC, Avadhoot Y. Hepatoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Arch Pharm Res 1991;14:93-5.

Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Sittisomwong N. Undetectable anti-bacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burma) wall. ex ness. J Med Assoc Thai 1990;73:299-304.

Chang RS, Ding L, Chen GQ, et al. Dehydroandrographolide succinic acid monoester as an inhibitor against the human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1991;197:59-66.

Puri A, Saxena R, Saxena RP, et al. Immunostimulant agents from Andrographis paniculata. J Nat Prod 1993;56:995-9.

Raj RK. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides:Part II. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1975;19;47-9.

Matsuda T, Kuroyanagi M, Sugiyama S, et al. Cell differentiation-inducing diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata Nees. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)1994;42:1216-25.

Akbarsha MA, Manivannan B, Hamid KS, Vijayan B. Antifertility effect of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in male albino rat. Indian J Exp Biol 1990;28:421-6.

Burgos RA, Caballero EE, Sanchez NS, et al. Testicular toxicity assessment of Andrographis paniculata dried extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58:219-24.

Panossian A, Kochikian A, Gabrielian E, et al. Effect of Andrographis paniculata extract on progesterone in blood plasma of pregnant rats. Phytomedicine 1999;6:157-61.

Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Wikman GK. Prevention of common colds with Andrographis Paniculata dried extract: a pilot, double-blind trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4:101-4.

Melchior J, Palm S, Wikman G. Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata in common cold- a pilot trial. Phytomedicine 1996;97;3:315-8.

Hancke J, Burgos R, Caceres D, Wikman G. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 1995;9:559-62.

Zoha MS, Hussain AH, Choudhury SA. Antifertility effect of andrographis paniculata in mice. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1989;15:34-7.

Gozalbes R, Galvez J, Garcia-Domenech R, Derouin F. Molecular search of new active drugs against Toxoplasma gondii. SAR QSAR Environ Res 1999;10:47-60.

Kapil A, Koul IB, Banerjee SK, Gupta BD. Antihepatotoxic effects of major diterpenoid constituents of Andrographis paniculata. Biochem Pharmacol 1993;46:182-5.

Gupta S, Yadava JN, Tandon JS. Antisecretory (antidiarrheal) activity of Indian medicinal plants against Escherchia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig ileal loop models. Int J Pharmacogn 1993;31:198-204.

Najib NA, Rahman N, Furuta T, et al. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64:249-54.

Misra P, Pal NL, Guru PY, et al. Antimalarial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) against Plasmodium berghei NK 65 in Mastomys natalensis. Int J Pharmacogn 1992;30:263-74.

Wang DW, Zhao HY. Prevention of atherosclerotic arterial stenosis and restenosis after angioplasty with Andrographis paniculata nees and fish oil. Experimental studies of effects and mechanisms. Chin Med J (Engl) 1994;107:464-70.

Wang DW, Zhao HY. Experimental studies on prevention of atherosclerotic arterial stenosis and restenosis after angioplasty with Andrographis Paniculata Nees and fish oil. J Tongji Med Univ 1993;13:193-8.

Melchoir J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan Jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 2000;7:341-50.

Calabrese C, Berman SH, Babish JG, et al. A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers. Phytother Res 2000;14:333-8.

Kumar RA, Sridevi K, Kumar NV, et al. Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:291-5.

Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshkina EN, Wikman G. A Randomized, Controlled Study of Kan Jang versus Amantadine in the Treatment of Influenza in Volgograd. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:77-92.

Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine 2002;9:589-97..

Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, et al. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004;29:37-45.

Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, Wikman G. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res 2004;18:47-53.

Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85.

Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med 2004;70:293-8.

Chiou, W. F., Chen, C. F., and Lin, J. J. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide. Br.J.Pharmacol. 2000;129(8):1553-1560.

Panossian, A., Hovhannisyan, A., Mamikonyan, G., Abrahamian, H., Hambardzumyan, E., Gabrielian, E., Goukasova, G., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Pharmacokinetic and oral bioavailability of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in rats and human. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(5):351-364.

Panossian, A., Davtyan, T., Gukassyan, N., Gukasova, G., Mamikonyan, G., Gabrielian, E., and Wikman, G. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang--fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3--on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(7):598-605.

Iruretagoyena, M. I., Tobar, J. A., Gonzalez, P. A., Sepulveda, S. E., Figueroa, C. A., Burgos, R. A., Hancke, J. L., and Kalergis, A. M. Andrographolide interferes with T cell activation and reduces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the mouse. J.Pharmacol.Exp Ther. 2005;312(1):366-372.

Hidalgo, M. A., Romero, A., Figueroa, J., Cortes, P., Concha, I. I., Hancke, J. L., and Burgos, R. A. Andrographolide interferes with binding of nuclear factor-kappaB to DNA in HL-60-derived neutrophilic cells. Br.J.Pharmacol. 2005;144(5):680-686.

Kligler, B., Ulbricht, C., Basch, E., Kirkwood, C. D., Abrams, T. R., Miranda, M., Singh Khalsa, K. P., Giles, M., Boon, H., and Woods, J. Andrographis paniculata for the treatment of upper respiratory infection: a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Explore.(NY) 2006;2(1):25-29.

Jada, S. R., Hamzah, A. S., Lajis, N. H., Saad, M. S., Stevens, M. F., and Stanslas, J. Semisynthesis and cytotoxic activities of andrographolide analogues. J Enzyme Inhib.Med Chem 2006;21(2):145-155.

Smith, P. L., Maloney, K. N., Pothen, R. G., Clardy, J., and Clapham, D. E. Bisandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata activates TRPV4 channels. J Biol Chem 10-6-2006;281(40):29897-29904.

Li, W., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Ma, C., Fong, H., van Breemen, R., and Fitzloff, J. Secondary metabolites from Andrographis paniculata. Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2007;55(3):455-458.

Wibudi, A., Kiranadi, B., Manalu, W., winarto, A., and Suyono, S. The traditional plant, Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), exhibits insulin-releasing actions in vitro. Acta Med Indones. 2008;40(2):63-68.

Cui, L., Chan, W., Qiu, F., Cai, Z., and Yao, X. Identification of four urea adducts of andrographolide in humans. Drug Metab Lett. 2008;2(4):261-268.

Burgos, R. A., Hancke, J. L., Bertoglio, J. C., Aguirre, V., Arriagada, S., Calvo, M., and Caceres, D. D. Efficacy of an Andrographis paniculata composition for the relief of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(8):931-946.

Saxena, R. C., Singh, R., Kumar, P., Yadav, S. C., Negi, M. P., Saxena, V. S., Joshua, A. J., Vijayabalaji, V., Goudar, K. S., Venkateshwarlu, K., and Amit, A. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(3-4):178-185.

Tang, T., Targan, S. R., Li, Z. S., Xu, C., Byers, V. S., and Sandborn, W. J. Randomised clinical trial: herbal extract HMPL-004 in active ulcerative colitis - a double-blind comparison with sustained release mesalazine. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 2011;33(2):194-202.

Akbar, S. Andrographis paniculata: a review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects. Altern.Med Rev. 2011;16(1):66-77.

Lim, J. C., Chan, T. K., Ng, D. S., Sagineedu, S. R., Stanslas, J., and Wong, W. S. Andrographolide and its analogues: versatile bioactive molecules for combating inflammation and cancer. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39(3):300-310.

Chen, Q., Liu, Y., Liu, Y. M., Liu, G. Y., Zhang, M. Q., Jia, J. Y., Lu, C., and Yu, C. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of dehydroandrographolide succinate injection after intravenous administration in healthy Chinese volunteers. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33(10):1332-1336.

Sandborn, W. J., Targan, S. R., Byers, V. S., Rutty, D. A., Mu, H., Zhang, X., and Tang, T. Andrographis paniculata extract (HMPL-004) for active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(1):90-98.

Singh, P., Singh, I. N., Mondal, S. C., Singh, L., and Garg, V. K. Platelet-activating factor (PAF)-antagonists of natural origin. Fitoterapia 2013;84:180-201.

Melchior, J., Palm, S., and Wikman, G. Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract in common cold - a pilot trial. Phytomedicine. 1997;3(4):315-318.

Borhanuddin, M., Shamsuzzoha, M., and Hussain, A. H. Hypoglycaemic effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on non-diabetic rabbits. Bangladesh Med.Res.Counc.Bull. 1994;20(1):24-26.

Guo, Z. L., Zhao, H. Y., and Zheng, X. H. An experimental study of the mechanism of andrographis paniculata nees (APN) in alleviating the Ca(2+)-overloading in the process of myocardial ischemic reperfusion. J.Tongji Med.Univ 1995;15(4):205-208.

Zhang, C. Y. and Tan, B. K. Hypotensive activity of aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol.Physiol 1996;23(8):675-678.

Chiou, W. F., Lin, J. J., and Chen, C. F. Andrographolide suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophage and restores the vasoconstriction in rat aorta treated with lipopolysaccharide. Br.J.Pharmacol. 1998;125(2):327-334.

Madav, S., Tripathi, H. C., and Tanden Mishra, S. K. Analgesic, antipyretic and antiulcerogenic effects of Andrographolide. Indian J Pharm Sci 1995;57:121-125.

Caceres, D. D., Hancke, J. L., Burgos, R. A., and Wikman, G. K. Prevention of common colds with Andrographis paniculata dried extract: A pilot double blind trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4:101-104.

Hancke, J., Burgos, R., Caceres, D., and Wikman, G. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytother Res. 1995;1995(9):-559.

Balap A, Atre B, Lohidasan S, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) extract and andrographolide with etoricoxib after oral administration in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 May 13;183:9-17.

Bertoglio JC, Baumgartner M, Palma R, et al. Andrographis paniculata decreases fatigue in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 12-month double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. BMC Neurol. 2016; 16(1):77.

Phunikhom K, Khampitak K, Aromdee C, et al. Effect of Andrographis paniculata Extract on Triglyceride Levels of the Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98 Suppl 6:S41-7.

Suwankesawong W, Saokaew S, Permsuwan U, et al. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:515.

Tan ML, Lim LE. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP450 isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2015;38(3):241-53.

Hu XY, Wu RH, Logue M, et al. Andrographis paniculata (Chuan Xin Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2017;12(8):e0181780.

Hancke JL, Srivastav S, Cáceres DD, Burgos RA. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy of Andrographis paniculate standardized extract (ParActin®) on pain reduction in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Phytother Res. 2019;33(5):1469-1479.

Widjajakusuma EC, Jonosewojo A, Hendriati L, et al. Phytochemical screening and preliminary clinical trials of the aqueous extract mixture of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees and Syzygium polyanthum (Wight.) Walp leaves in metformin treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Phytomedicine. 2019;55:137-147.